I've taken the liberty of moving your thread over to the Computer and Technology forum as it was not really related to photography in any specific manner. There are always a lot of processes running on a Windows system, and your list doesn't look out of line. Hitting the old "Ctrl+Alt+Delete" lets you see the processes, but it sure doesn't give you much help. For a better view of things that is a bit more helpful, head on over to Microsoft and download and run the Sysinternals Process Viewer
As Wendy said, the thing to look for is the CPU time the process is taking because that is the process hog that is slowing your system down. That's not to say that it isn't a legitimate program, just that it's the one sucking up the cycle times.
Oh, and another thing, if you ever wonder what a specific process is just do a web search on it. Odds are very good that there is an answer out there.