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Old 09-13-2007, 11:53 PM
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Post Boro Tutorials

Due to popular demand...
This thread will be the boro tutorials posted originally in the boro newbie thread.

The intent of this thread is to provide quick access to the tutorials. All questions, discussion and show-n-tell should be done over on the boro newbie thread. http://www.wetcanvas.com/forums/showthread.php?t=440681

Starting in Sep of 07 we are posting a new project every two weeks. We hope you will join us.
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Old 09-13-2007, 11:54 PM
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Re: Boro Tutorials

Very cool! Thanks!!
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Old 09-13-2007, 11:57 PM
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Re: Boro Tutorials

Butterfly (original posting with pictures is in the boro newbie thread page 4 post number 49)


This is not a hard project assuming you have some experience with lampwork. Before you start you will need to make a twisty to use for the body.

1. Now let’s get started. You can use just about anything you have around your work area with the example I started out with an 8mm rod.

2. Then heat until you have a gather on the end:



3. Wrap the gather with what ever color or combinations of color you like, or even dip it a few times in frit. There are no rules!

4. Next melt your colors in. Gathering the end of the rod into a ball. When you have a well formed ball press the ball straight down on to your graphite marvering pad to make a disk.



5. Now you will be using a smaller rod for a punty. Heat the end and sharpen it on the graphite pad to enable you to have only a small point attached to the disk. Using a warm seal attach the punty to the center of the disk.



6. Remove the rod from the other side by heating just below the disk and using the tearing technique, remove any extra glass with your needle nose pliers. Then melt and smooth using your graphite tools.

7. Now you’re going to add a punty to the side of the disk and remove the one that is in the center.



8. To begin making the butterfly you will heat the end opposite the punty, only heat the bottom half, you are making the bottom wings first, until red hot. Very carefully, using shears (household scissors work well also) you will cut about ¼ of the way up the center. Then make two more cuts heating the area first, cutting, and heating the next area, at about 4 o’clock and 8 o’clock.

oops bad pictures it's not your eyes




9. You now have three cuts (right?) and two, soon to be tail wing sections. Heat one side until red hot. Now with a very small rod say 4mm make a hot seal to the center of the wing section and allow the attachment to cool slightly then begin to pull remembering the small rod will cool faster allowing you to pull the larger thicker wing section with out the punty pulling off until your ready to melt it off and move on to the next tail wing.



10. Sweet now you have tail wings, so punty up to the tail (the thicker part rather than the tip, it will make life easier). And repeat for the top wings.



11. For the body just heat down the center from top to bottom and make a mark with your tungsten pick for a guide line then warm your twisty, and the body and lay the twisty in the groove melt it in until it is attached yet still raised.



12. Using another color, make a good size gather for the head. Hot seal it between the two top wings and round it out by melting. Then add a loop on the end of one wing.

13. An easy to make a loop is by making a bead on a mandrel, and heating both until red hot and joining them. Another way is by heating a rod until it is red hot, and attaching it to the red hot tip of the wing. Now moving down the rod heat it until you can mold it around the top of your torch making a C shape with a long end, then melting off the extra and shaping it into a loop using your needle nose pliers and tungsten pick.

14. Now add the antennas, and eyes. And ….TA DA one beautiful butterfly!




Re: Boro Newbie Thread?? Any takers?
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Yah!!! our first project!!!! Thank You!!!!!!!
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Old 09-14-2007, 12:01 AM
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Re: Boro Tutorials

High desert twist by Rashan Omari Jones Originally posted in the boro newbie thread page 17 post 250

Jones Art Glass
Rashan Omari Jones (sole proprietor)
1401 Pennsylvania NE #1145
Albuquerque, NM 87110
505-217-8535, [email protected], www.glassartists.org/JonesArtGlass


“Lets do the Twist…”

High Desert Twist How-To by Rashan Omari Jones
Photos by Andrew Brown



Introduction: Living in Albuquerque, NM is a beautiful thing; I am treated to some of nature’s most exquisite colors. As a Bead maker I best describe my style as natural, organic; and I’m happy to have found a bead that can capture that. The way the colors flow throughout the High Desert Twist and wrap themselves around spiraling outward is further accentuated by the twist of the bead itself. The shape truly displays the character of the High Desert. “Sometimes ebb sometimes flow but constantly in motion… “ Beads are a therapeutic release for me. Since I switched my focus to them I’m finally making the glass I’ve always seen in my minds eye. I’ve been a Boro Beadmaker since the spring of 2004. I had met Lewis Wilson a few years prior and he had such a profound affect on my career in glass that I turned to beads. In February 2004 I had an opportunity to work with Kevin O’Grady at the Best Bead Show in Tucson. I learned how much hard work and delicate detail could go into both making and marketing successful beads. I returned home to a head full of new ideas and spent a lot of time on the torch honing my skills. Soon I looked at glass in a whole new way. It was as if a love of beads had somehow awakened a whole new side of creativity within me. I would drive to the studio and notice how vibrant purples streak across the horizon at sunrise, or pay more attention to the golden sandstone browns and creams of the West Mesa. Next thing I knew those same colors were turning up in my beads. I also captured the rich greens of our forests and riverbank areas in the spring, and the streaky golds and ambers of a New Mexico Sunset. Once I had a color palette I was comfortable working with the Jones Art Glass High Desert series was born. I am creator of both the High Desert Twist as well as the High Desert Blown Honeycomb. The Bead Expo Show 2004 in Santa Fe was my first real bead show I vended at. Andrew Brown, Bryan Kitson, and Harold Cooney blessed me with an opportunity and did so much more than just let me on their table; they helped me establish the confidence to create. What follows is a Step-by-step for the Jones Art Glass High Desert Twist Bead…Thank you for enjoying my work and taking some time to spend with me. I spend most of my time on the torch here in Albuquerque, and I teach beginning Borosilicate classes on the weekends. If you ever find yourself in the Desert check out my class schedule and all my latest work, available on my gallery site: www.glassartists.org/JonesArtGlass. I can also be reached at 505-217-8535 or [email protected].




Materials:

1 12in 14mm rod
1 rod GA Caramel Luster
1 12in 4mm rod
1 set Nortel Stainless Steel Mashers
1 1/8in Tungsten Pick

A few words on Tungsten:
This How-To includes a brief discussion on Tungsten picking. Tungsten is a metal and when too much heat is applied it can fume a yellow gray residue onto your glass. It’s a skuzzy film that can be burned off with a high heat but its best just not to do it at all. As well as aesthetically unpleasing, it is also dangerous when done without proper ventilation. Tungsten picking is a fun and inventive technique and is an excellent addition to your glass knowledge. It takes a lot of patience in the beginning to get your heat controls proper but its well worth the practice. Good Luck!!


1. Heat the tip of the Caramel Luster and draw vertically down the 14mm rod. Maintain an even heat s that the stringer is even all the way down. I enjoy using the Luster Series from Glass Alchemy as a color palette for the High Desert Twist Pendant; the high silver content of these colors adds different shades and hues into the final bead that are very eye appealing. Tip: if you choose any cadmium-based colors, i.e. yellow, orange crayon be sure to fully encase them.
2. Rotate the rod place five equal lines of Caramel Luster evenly spaced around the rod. Tip: keep the torch heat on the tip of the color so that the 14mm rod doesn’t soften and bend while laying the lines.
3. Using the 4mm rod, encase each line of Caramel luster with a coat of clear.
4. Attach the 4mm rod to the end of the 14mm rod.
5. Slowly rotate the rods even in the heat until it reaches a pink glow. Then slow the spin of your hand holding the 4mm rod. The lines will begin to twist like a barber pole stripe. It’s important at this point not to stretch the gather of glass.
6. Continue heating the 14mm rod all the way to the end of the Caramel Luster lines, intermittently slowing one of your hands to continue twisting the colors together.
7. Once the colors are twisted completely; flame cut the 4mm rod off the twisted color.
8. Heat the color back into a gather.
9. Once you have an oval shaped gather center it into the mashers and squeeze. Tip: I usually set my mashers for a 1/4inch press
10. Take the gather out of the mashers and make sure the disc shape is centered on the 14mm rod.
11. Reattach the 4mm rod to the end of the disc shape.
12. Take the centered disc out of the flame and allow it to cool so that no orange glow is present before reintroducing it to the flame for the final shaping.
13. Place the center of your flame into the center of your disc and heat evenly. Flip it over 180 degrees and heat the opposite side. Tip: It’s important to the final shape that only the flat sides of your disc are heated. The goal is to raise the core temperature of the disc without losing the shape of the narrow sides.
14. Continue heating the disc from either flat side until it softens and glows near pink, then stop your hand holding the 4mm rod and the disc will begin to form into the twisted shape.
15. Take it out of the flame and allow too cool; once out continue spinning both your hands evenly until the bead cools a bit. If necessary reintroduce it to the flame to further intensify the twist shape.
16. Flame-cut the 4mm rod off and smooth out the top of the bead with the flame. Take it out of the flame and allow too cool until the orange glow has faded.
17. Slowly heat the heat the end of the Tungsten pick about a half-inch behind the tip and roll it quickly in your fingers as you push into the glass.
18. Continue pushing the pick through and heating it softly in the back of your flame as far back as possible while maintaining as dull orange glow. Tip: if you get your tungsten pick too hot it will fume your glass an ugly gray. A super high heat can burn it off but that same heat can distort the shape of your bead.
19. Push the pick back through the opposite side to make sure the hole is true from both sides of the High Desert Twist. Then pull it out of the hole to inspect the pierce hole and flame polish.
20. Reattach the 4mm rod and center it onto the High Desert Twist taking care not to get the pierce hole to warm that it collapses. A cold seal is preferred.
21. Flame-cut the 14mm rod off the bottom of the Twist.
22. Flame-polish the end of the bead and take all the clear off leaving just beautiful striated colors.
23. Grasp the High Desert Twist with tweezers and snap of the cold seal of the 4mm rod.
24. Flame-polish the end and kiln.
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Old 09-27-2007, 09:41 PM
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Re: Boro Tutorials

Triple “B” Basic Boro Bead
This tutorial is being written to provide information to beginners and to give all levels a colorful bead project to play with. If you have a little more time on the torch please look through the safety information and see if you can add anything to it.
The official stuff..
A LARGE CAUTIONARY WARNING: LAMPWORKING IS DANGEROUS . Please be careful and follow all safety precautions! AS the lawyers say do this at your own risk.
Some basic questions:
Q. What is the coefficient of expansion of borosilicate?
A. 33 +/-. Soft glass of 90, 96, or 104 is NOT combatable with boro. Soft glass will NOT work with BORO.
Q. I have a hot head torch, will it work for doing boro work?
A. In theory, yes, would be very slow, like watching grass grow. Additionally, with no supply of oxygen, you would not be able to get rich true colors.
Q. I only have a small room, with zero ventilation, what should I do?
A. Carbon monoxide fumes WILL KILL you, and also the fumes from the boro glass are a safety concern also. You must actually remove the polluted air and replace it with clean air not just move it around. If you start getting a headache or feel “off”- turn everything off and get some fresh air immediately.
Q. Can I use a fiber blanket to anneal my boro beads?
A. Sorry, proper annealing MUST be done in a kiln. Some VERY qualified long term glass workers anneal in a flame. I don’t, only been lampworking for about 14 years.
Q. What boro glass do you (Jim) use?
A, I use Glass Alchemy, Momka’s, and Northstar. They all make a high QUALITY glass, and this increases my color palette.

Tools:
The tools listed are the ones I personally use:
Eye protection: I use a boro shield that was purchased from Aurelis glass co in MN. Highly recommend, or glasses foe BORO, didys will NOT give adequate protection. Have heard some say to use welders glasses. To me, you only get one set of eyes in a lifetime.
Torch : GTT Lynx
Propane 5psi
Oxygen: I use tanked 02. gives maximum performance 10 psi
Rods: 3/32”, stainless steel. Any smaller diameter, and they will be burning up left and right on you.
Bead release, I use Sludge Plus from Arrow springs
Graphite paddle
Fire resistant work table surface
Fire extinguisher
Zetez gloves
Burn ointment



Borosilicate glass used For this project:
Double Amber Purple = 1547NS-26 (Northstar)
Star White= 1547 NS-54 (Northstar)
Rasta Gold Crayon = 3OZ GA (Glass Alchemy)
2m.m. clear Boro rods
Some basic advice:
A couple of cautionary words in addition to the fact that heat burns. You will probably melt your first few bead rods. This happens from holding it in the flame too long, and too close. Practice and more practice will correct this for you.
Kiln setting: Set your kiln for 566C or 1050 F. I normally set it for how long I will be torching.
Then, will go get myself a cup of coffee, while the kiln is going up to temp. Kiln is now at 1050, so: it is time to go forward.
Remember the word : P.O.O.P., it is an acronym and is the order of turning your torch on, and off. PLEASE memorize and follow this order.
1. (P) Propane, (O) Oxygen, and shutting down (O) Oxygen, and then (P) Propane.
2. Turn torch on, Propane ONLY . Light with a torch lighter, cigarette lighters are not safe.
3. Now, turn on your oxygen supply. Possibly, the flame will go poof, and go out, if this happens repeat steps 1-3 and turn torch knobs slowly.
4. Use a neutral flame, equal amounts of Propane and Oxygen. (see post #58 of this thread to see how to set a neutral flame)
5. My settings are as follows: propane- 5 psi, O2 10 psi
O.k., eye protection in place,


Triple “B” Basic Boro Bead
1. Preheat your rod of Star White, when it starts to glow, pick up the mandrel you will be using. Make several winds around the mandrel with star white. Keep turning your rod very close to the flame, but not totally in it. Too close, and your metal rod will melt. Continue this until you have a nice even, round bead.



2. Make one wind with your clear boro rod, and melt it in.



3. Make one wind with your Rasta Gold, over the clear wind you just melted in., and melt it about 50- 60% into the clear.


4. Take your double amber purple rod, and lay a wrap over the Rasta gold. Melt in about the same amount, 50-60%.



5. Now, take your clear, and make dots with it, going right into the gold and amber. Make 5 dots with the clear rod.



6. Still, using your clear rod, go back and make squiggles in the colors you have in place.

7. Almost done, encase you bead in clear boro.

8. Keep turning until it is as round as you can get it. Remember glass moves toward the flame, it’s just slower with boro.

9. Let your bead cool for a moment or two (like a five count), put on your ZETEX gloves. Open kiln door, and place your new creation in there to anneal. (Minimum annealing 30 Min) After your annealing time is done you can just turn off the kiln and let it cool naturally, you do not need to ramp down.
10. When your kiln has cooled to room temperature, open, and admire your new creation .


Hope this tutorial has been helpful, and easy to understand. Any comments pro or con are welcome.
Peace, Jim
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Old 09-28-2007, 08:02 AM
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Re: Boro Tutorials

For those who aren't following the newbie thread in the glass lobby forum...
Just so folks can plan a little here is what is on schedule for the next few months

15 Oct Using frit and color for beads from Sandra Seaman
1 Nov Icicle from Bill (good for the holidays)
15 Nov Paula from Venerable bead. (I don't have the tut yet but she had talked about an off mandrel pendent)
1 Dec Joanna from Sleekbead
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Old 10-10-2007, 07:52 PM
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Re: Boro Tutorials

http://www.marshglass.com/tutorials/...gonflytut.html

Dragonfly tutorial
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Old 10-10-2007, 08:25 PM
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Re: Boro Tutorials

Mr Smiley Heart Tutorial
http://www.lampworketc.com/forums/sh...heart+tutorial

These are mine done with the tutorial (Mr Smiley's are much better)
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Old 10-13-2007, 09:10 AM
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Re: Boro Tutorials

Basic Frit beads with Silver Strike 5 frit and variations.

Sandra Seaman, 57 Park Road, West Lawn, PA 19609 • 610-670-3104
One Bead at a Time • http://www.onebead.com[email protected]

Rods:

GA Indigo Luster
Black (I like Precision Jet Black)
Elvis Red (self-striking)
Momka Purple Thunder
Precision Unobtanium

Frit:

GA Silver Strike 5

Silver Strike 5 is one of my favorite frit colors because it provides a nice contrast with a lot of different base colors and often you will get nice outlines around the frit and some shiny, metallic luster.

1. Making a frit bead with boro is just like soft glass. Start with a small spacer size base bead in one of the base colors. With boro it is more important to put the glass where you want it to be because it does not flow like soft glass. Heat to a nice orange glow and roll quickly in frit. You will find that the base bead cools off way more quickly than with soft glass. Didn't pick up enough frit? Just heat and roll again. Melt the frit in using the cooler outer ranges of your flame. The intense heat of a boro flame can cause small bits that stick up (like frit) to boil.

2. Encase with clear. You will need to get your clear very, very hot. The base bead should be warm. You can allow the base bead to get a little more hot when encasing than you would with soft glass. The colors will not get distorted as easily. One of the nice things about boro! I generally put a swipe of very hot clear around the center of the bead, then add a swipe on the right and left shoulders of the bead trying to apply the glass as close to the mandrel as possible. If you want to, you can use a brass stump shaper or butter knife to move the clear closer to the mandrel but don't let it touch the mandrel. When you add additional swipes of clear, get the clear very hot and push it up against the clear already on the bead. If you can actually melt the clear that is already on the bead a bit so they meld together, that's good. It is easy to trap air as you wind on your clear because the boro glass does not flow like soft glass.

3. Round up your bead. I aim the flame at the bottom half of the bead, allowing the top half to stick up out of the flame a bit. This is my attempt to keep the full heat of the flame off the mandrel. You will easily burn through mandrels if you rotate the bead fully in the middle of the flame as you do with soft glass. You need to get the clear casing really hot...the bead will round up and condense just as with soft glass if you give it enough heat. Rotate more slowly to allow the heat to soak into the bead. If you see long lines of air in the bead, give it more heat. If there is air trapped it will resolve into round bubbles instead of lines if you are using enough heat.

4. I generally don't strike the beads with bases of Indigo Luster, Unobtanium and Black. Indigo Luster can be struck so you might want to experiment with it. Black and Unobtanium are "what you see is what you get" colors. The Silver Strike 5 can also strike so if you want to experiment with striking all the beads, you can and see if you get different effects. The Elvis generally strikes on its own as you work it so even though it is a striking color, you don't have to do much to get it to strike. The Silver Strike 5 often produces a metallic sheen with my torch setup. My torch (Bethlehem Barracuda) is slightly reducing which I believe makes this happen.

5. For the Purple Thunder, you will need to strike this color. After you have encased and rounded up your bead, remove the bead from the flame until the glow has entirely disappeared. You can hold it in the shadows under your table to see that the glow is gone. Then reintroduce the bead into the outer third of your flame and rotate slowly, watching to see the color come up. It should strike very quickly, so as soon as you see it start to blush purple you want to remove it from the flame. Make several of these and strike them for different lengths of time to see what you get. I generally strike my beads in the flame rather than in the kiln. Some colors such as pinks may need some kiln striking.*

6. Variations: After adding your frit and melting it in, you can add clear dots or stripes of clear, melt them in and then encase. Adding clear always gives interesting effects.

Annealing: I garage my beads at my soft glass temperature (950 degrees). I then ramp up to 1050 degrees and hold them for about 1/2 hour. Then cool down slowly. *Sometimes (to get colors to develop in the kiln) I will garage at 950, ramp up to 1175 for 20 minutes then down to 1050 for 1/2 hour and then cool down slowly. There are many versions of annealing schedules...this is just the one I use.

Have fun...post lots of pics and ask questions. That's what I'm here for!!

Sandy
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Old 10-14-2007, 12:16 PM
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Re: Boro Tutorials

Hi Everybody,

Here's a photo of my frit beads. OK...so these are pretty simple and looking at your boro thread, I think you guys are beyond these simple beads but hey, this is what I planned! My sample beads have some other ideas for adding texture to your frit beads.

The beads going from left to right are:
1. Indigo Luster with SS5 frit - just encased with clear
2. Jet Black with SS5 frit - after melting in the frit I raked with a 3mm clear stringer, then encased.
3. Elvis Red with SS5 frit - after melting in the frit, I dotted with bead with clear dots and then encased.
4. & 5. Purple Thunder with SS5 frit - after melting in the frit, I put diagonal stripes of clear on with a 3mm stringer, then encased. #4 was with no striking, #5 was with striking.
6. Unobtanium with SS5 frit - after melting in the frit, I twisted the frit with a thin stringer, and then encased.

Have fun! There are such endless combinations of base colors and frit...no end to the fun!

Sandy
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Old 10-23-2007, 09:53 PM
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Re: Boro Tutorials

Here is the icicle tutorial link. http://www.wetcanvas.com/forums/show...763#post761763

We decided to start on implosions but I wanted to post this for anyone who wanted to try it. The icicles would be really neat for the holidays.
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Old 10-23-2007, 10:22 PM
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Re: Boro Tutorials

Well the next thing we are working will be implosions. Here are different links and a tutorial to let everyone get started. We won’t move on to the next tutorial until 15 Nov.

http://www.lampworketc.com/forums/sh...ad.php?t=69613

http://www.soleiletlune.com/tutorials/

http://www.glassrave.com/tricks.html

http://www.anakinsglasseye.com/tutorial-implosion2.htm

Here is a link with some butterfly implosion info. http://www.lampworketc.com/forums/sh...ad.php?t=53406

Goes with the info below http://www.glassartists.org/Gal15510...Rose_Demo_.asp

Written by Heidi (Hot Coles) Tube Implosions
Hi guys! Sorry I haven't gotten back to you about the that I do. I use Simax 15.9mm tube, 2.4mm thick. The instructions below will give you an implosion much like the one shown.


I believe the colors I used in this one were teal and Solara. You will need 2-3stringers in the colors of your choice, 2 - 5mm clear rod (for punties) and 15.9mm (heavy wall) Simax tube.

1. Preheat your tube glass and then, using your first stringer color, apply dots to the outside of the tube, spacing this row evenly all the way around the tube very close to the edge.

2. With a different color, add another row of dots on the very end edge of the tube, spacing them between the dots of the previous row. This row of dots will actually become the center of your flower. If holding the tube in your left hand, this row is placed in front of the dots in the first step, to the right.

3. Using the same color as in the second step (or color of your choice), make a third row of dots behind your second row (these were made in the first step), again, spacing them between the dots of the previous round.

4. Make a total of 4-5 rows of dots (or more depending on how large you make your dots). Keep the dots about a 1/2" to 5/8" from the end.

5. Now for imploding. Keep your tube horizontal with the flame and begin to heat the end slowly until the tube closes (continually rotating). When I see that the closed end is about a quarter of an inch, I then press the end on my marver (mostly, I allow the weight of the rod to do the pressing)

6. Return the rod to the flame and hold the tube with the end pointing down about 35-45 degrees to the flame. Direct the flame on the tread of the imposion. Press gently on your marver. Repeat this step until you see that you have your implosion.

7. Optional: add black to the bottom of the implosion, heat and flatten until there is no longer a ridge and is smooth.

8. Cold punty to the bottom with 5mm clear rod. Now heat the tube just above your implosion. When soft, blow gently on the opposite end to make a bubble (careful not to blow it out, as shards are dangerous to breath). Place the bubble in the flame to remove tube from implosion.

9. Pull or cut off any unwanted glass (from the bubble), then heat to smooth out the top.

10. Cold punty to the edge of implosion and break off first punty. Heat and smooth any scar left by punty.

11. Add loop to top, grab with preheated tweezers, and break last punty and smooth out scar as before.

I usually put these right on my marver and batch anneal them later.

I sure hope this was helpful. If you have any questions or something just wasn't clear...let me know. Here are other examples of this type of implosion.
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Old 10-24-2007, 12:34 AM
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MaureenKennedy MaureenKennedy is offline
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Re: Boro Tutorials

This is the bead I want to learn how to do. I got Doug's video but I still don't understand how it's done. The multiplicity of colors has to be more than a tight twist on a disk bead with dots of clear around both sides. Can someone photo procedure for me? I've been trying the bead off and on for several years now.
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Old 10-24-2007, 11:38 AM
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Dawnt0721 Dawnt0721 is offline
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Re: Boro Tutorials

Maureen - to make a wave bead like that you would make your base bead from your twistie (two or three wraps from your cane), take a 3mm stringer and apply it in a wave pattern all the way around your bead going from side to side close to the mandrel but be careful not to touch it. Melt that down and encase. These were made with one of the recipes from Doug's video. Dark Dougie Pink, Silver Strike 5 and Caramel Luster.

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Old 10-24-2007, 06:46 PM
kwglass kwglass is offline
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Re: Boro Tutorials

There are also some interesting effects depending on your twistie and also how the bead is layed down as Dawn has mentioned. (sorry don't have my log book with me so I cannot link the method with exact effect).

Some factors are:
Twistie: How tight is the twist? Is the twistie melted smooth when pulled? Is the twistie melted clear to the unstruck state during the pull or is the pulled twistie struck? Are any stripes protected with clear prior to pulling?

Use: Is the twisting fused on while wrapping onto mandrel? Is it melted on so it resembles more of a finished bead? How much clear is applied which causes the depth and drawing out of the cross-section? After laying down twistie, is the clear applied or is the bead shaped prior to applying clear? Have any tools touched the bead?

Striking: Is the bead unstruck during the shaping process? How deep was heat applied while striking? Was constant striking heat applied or was the bead in and out of the flame (multiple strikes)? How much strike was by kiln? Which direction was striking flame applied?

Maureen, some pieces having complex and varying color spreads may be due primarily with how the glass was treated (gentle vs smacked around) in the process and not just the spiraling of different colors in a twist. Many of the above were learned by trial trying to replicate experiments.

Have fun playing around PM if u want and I'll try and answer when I'm back in US.
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