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Old 12-13-2004, 12:29 AM
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Basic 101: Class 8 - Light and Shade

Basic 101: Class 8

Light and Shade

Materials: For this class, as I am sure some of you are already doing, you can use the full range of drawing pencils, you may use mechanical pencils or any pencil which will afford you the rich darks that you will need for the project.

Light and dark are the consequence of each other. They play upon one another and co-mingle in a tenuous but mutual existence. They are the perfect example of action and reaction. Light and dark are the things that scary is made of or, more appropriately, mood and atmosphere, ambience and setting. They are the great influencers of emotions, setting the stage for Hamlet-like broodings or the bubbling merriments of Noel Coward’s Blithe Spirit.

In a single community project, we will be exploring light and shade.

There are properties to light and shade: There is artificial light that you can control and there is natural light in which light controls you. In our project, which is outdoors, the property is natural light but we have control over the project because it is a photograph frozen in a single moment. For the general discussion and not the project we will be referring to objects lit artificially.

For the time being let us only deal with ONE light source. Light falls on an object and separates into distinct regions—these regions BLEND into one another—this point is very important. The brightest region is the point where the light directly hits the surface of the object and the darkest region is where the light source is least effected by the light source. Simple enough. BETWEEN the two extreme regions of light and dark there exist other regions of varying degrees of light and dark. The region that lies midway between the lightest and darkest region is called the MIDTONE.

When shading an object establish these three regions FIRST then lay in the other regions of varying degrees. MAKE SURE THAT ALL REGIONS BLEND INTO ONE ANOTHER.

When you do a drawing it is a good idea to create a tonal scale so that you have a good grip on how you will proceed with light and shadow. First lets do a simple tonal scale. For this exercise, I am only doing four degrees of shade but you can have as many as you choose. Note that I am only using one pencil—in this case, a 2b—by varying your degree of pressure you can create an entire range of values—again by just using ONE pencil (See Figure 1).





Exercise 1:

Now lets, try the same exercise on a sphere. Draw your sphere and then shade it accordingly. Mentally mark your bright light and your darkest dark and then locate the center value (the mid-tone). Once you have drawn in these values then move on to the lesser values and complete the sphere. Try this exercise also on a cone, cylinder and square.

EDIT
Example with explicit indication of different zones: (by idcrisis55 ,copied from old tread)



Exercise 2:

Below you will notice a photograph of a tree. I took this shot myself early one morning. Your task is to take this tree and reproduce its texture and its values. I have also, for your convenience, provided a grayscale for you to use as a reference.

Exercise 3: Now that you have conquered the tree, the last step is to put SOMETHING in the tree that means something to you personally—something that will identify this as your tree. It could be a tree house, a person, a cat, a ball, a swing, anything that you so choose.

Good luck and Happy Drawing!!!

[Edit 2015]
"Homework":
Principles, Picture with terminology.
Overview of different shading techniques.
Summary of "rules". (Scroll down to chapter "Formula Shading")

Note from the Editor: This thread continues with the recent posts. The older posts can be found in this closed thread:
http://www.wetcanvas.com/forums/showthread.php?t=236295
Attached Images
    

Last edited by arnoud3272 : 04-08-2015 at 06:06 PM. Reason: Example copied
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Old 05-31-2009, 02:08 AM
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Re: Basic 101: Class 8 - Light and Shade

Hi. Just finished classes 1-5. I decided I really needed shading help, so I figured this should be my next class. I've done the first exercise and am posting it now.

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Old 05-31-2009, 06:41 AM
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Re: Basic 101: Class 8 - Light and Shade

Charity -
A good start already .
Here then is my start, a few pointers on how to improve.
-- The quality of the drawing is OK for sketching, for a value study in preparation of a painting or finished drawing. But for a finished drawing it is not smooth enough. For instance, on the cylinder and the cone, on a smooth surface there wil lbe a (gradual but) straight boundary between light and dark.
-- For a convincing 3D shading on a curved surface, one has to show the effect of the reflected light. That is, on the dark side of the object the shadow is again becoming a bit lighter at the edge. See for instance in this thread post #44 (page 3) and #49 (page 4).
For a real live example: this is a photo, but gray-scaled and the contrast a bit cranked up. You see how its own shadow on the ground is reflected as well.



You're very dedicated, keep it up
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Old 06-01-2009, 12:01 PM
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Re: Basic 101: Class 8 - Light and Shade

I looked up some useful tutorials on shading.
Principles, worth while to look to other tutorials on the same site as well.
Overview of different shading techniques.
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Old 06-01-2009, 11:21 PM
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Re: Basic 101: Class 8 - Light and Shade

Arnoud- Thanks so much for those links. They really helped a lot. I finished up the tree tonight, but my scanner hates to make it look like it actually does on paper, so I think it's a bit grainier than it looks like on paper.

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Old 06-02-2009, 04:26 AM
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Re: Basic 101: Class 8 - Light and Shade

Charity -
Very nice tree. Good range of light and dark.
One remark: the texture of the bark is much clearly defined on the trunk in the reference. This is not just the photo, it is an artistic principle, "atmospheric perspective", to let details fade in the distance.
Now the original assignment asks for adding something of your own. A first step in composition and creativity .
That said, my position for the advanced classes is that it is up to the pupil to choose whether to continue in the class, or to move on.
You may be proud already of this drawing .
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Old 06-02-2009, 10:11 AM
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Re: Basic 101: Class 8 - Light and Shade

Arnoud- Thanks I spent a long time on that tree trying to get it just right..and I'm actually pretty proud of it. I added my own personal touch and added a little detail to the trunk. As usual, my scanner added the grainy bit.

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Old 06-02-2009, 11:39 AM
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Re: Basic 101: Class 8 - Light and Shade

Charity -
Very well done .
This is one to frame .
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Old 06-02-2009, 11:52 AM
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Re: Basic 101: Class 8 - Light and Shade

Arnoud- Thanks so much!!
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Old 06-11-2009, 06:34 PM
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Re: Basic 101: Class 8 - Light and Shade

Hi Arnoud,

I have done the value and shapes portion of this class, but will probably go and finish the drawing I started for class 7 before I come back and work on the tree in this class.

Concentration is not a strength of mine right now as I lost my mother very suddenly last month. Please bare with me if I seem to jump around a bit. I started the class 7 drawing, but then struggled with what to add as the personal item. The shaded shapes of this lesson didn't require the same type of thought, so seemed like a good place to occupy my hands and mind.

Diane


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Old 06-11-2009, 07:45 PM
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Re: Basic 101: Class 8 - Light and Shade

Diane -
I am sorry to hear about your mother. It is painful to loose a beloved one. My thoughts are with you and your family.

Some pointers about these exercises:
-- the "black" square on the value scale could be a lot darker. Those scales are meant to be used for comparing the values of reference and drawing. And with your darkest value the drawing would certainly look washed out.
-- a recurrent remark: the ellipse on the cone ....
-- the "reflected" light on the sphere is too bright. In theoretical shadow exercises the forms are supposed to be lighted by a single light source. So the reflected light can never be as bright as the direct light. See for instance this tutorial (second paragraph).

Feel free to take classes in any order .
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Old 06-30-2009, 07:01 PM
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Re: Basic 101: Class 8 - Light and Shade

Hi Arnoud,
Sorry it took me so long to get these done.
I have fixed (I hope) the elipse, (there are far too many elipses in this world me thinks ), the values and the reflected light on the sphere.
Thanks
Diane
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Old 07-01-2009, 04:36 AM
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Re: Basic 101: Class 8 - Light and Shade

Diane -
Yes, much better .

A few pointers for the main assignment of this class: JayD asked us to aim for the most realistic rendering we can achieve (post #34, page 3). Some useful advice is on page 17, post #244; and a sample drawing on how to achieve the bark texture in the foreground parts is on page 25, post # 367
Keep up the good work .

[Edit: copied image from closed thread]

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Last edited by arnoud3272 : 11-29-2011 at 11:48 AM. Reason: added picture
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Old 07-03-2009, 01:46 PM
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Re: Basic 101: Class 8 - Light and Shade

Hi Arnoud,
Thanks for directing me to those posts, they are very helpful.

I am posting a start to the tree, I thought it would be a good idea to get some feedback before I get too far into it.
Actually, I am probably going to start over on some better paper, the sketchbook I am using only has 20lb paper in it and I think it's time to upgrade. So feel free to tell me I need to re-do the whole branch.
I am thinking that the bark seems to be too deeply grooved. Perhaps I should transfer the outline then play around on this one doing a couple of branches differently to see what I like best?
I had been afraid of starting the tree because of the level of detail, but I really had fun dong that branch.

Thanks
Diane

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Old 07-03-2009, 04:23 PM
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Re: Basic 101: Class 8 - Light and Shade

Diane -

Your bark texture is really correct, except that the mid tones are missing. Compare with this detail of the same branch.



I was tempted to write "again", but then reading about your paper I understand what is going on: 20lbs is much too light . For finished drawings I use 100lbs paper, and even that is considered too light by some of the masters in the D&S Forum. Also, choose a renowned brand, a cheap paper will not very well sustain repeated erasure and redrawing without developing "ghosts".
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