View Full Version : Basic 101: Class 3 - Drawing Cubic Objects

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11-07-2004, 11:51 PM
Basic 101
Class 3
Drawing Cubic Objects


For this class you can use the same number two pencil from the first two classes or, if you want, go ahead and incorporate your pencil of choice.

The Cube:

A cube has a top, a bottom, and four sides. /Thousands of objects have the cube at their very core. Cubes will not always be perfectly equilateral. They can be short, long or tall. They can be boxes, they can be found in animals and in churches. Cubes are everywhere. Look at figure 1.

This is a sketch that I completed in about 15 minutes or so—it is a graphite and colored pencil drawing. Notice that its main components are cubes. To create this sketch, I took two photos printed out from my computer—I print out all my images on photo paper as I notice that I get a sharper image. Both images are in color although sometimes I will print out a third gray scale image. However you can take a piece of hard red plastic and lay it over your color photo and the colors will wash away and you can clearly see your values. One of the color photos I place on my table as the reference photo. The other photo is placed on my light table and I backlight the image so that I can see elements of the picture that I would otherwise miss.

Next I just did a sketch starting first with a loose drawing to determine the basic geometric shapes. The shapes are drawn over and over again until I get the shape that I am looking for. In this case the core components are cubes. See if you can find the cubes in this image.

In this sketch there are four cubes clearly represented of varying shapes and sizes. Also because this is only a sketch I don’t need to strictly enforce the laws of perspective. If I want to develop this picture further I simply take a sheet of tracing paper, lay it over the sketch and trace the sketch lines onto the tracing paper—I can then make my perspective corrections onto the tracing paper prior to transfer—I use a heavy vellum to do this.. I then will rub graphite on the opposite side and transfer my corrected drawing to the “Good paper “ and then will proceed in whatever media that I want. You may also do the transfer via graphite paper, light table, or by taping the paper to a glass door or window and using it as a “natural light table”. You can also transfer by grid or by compass (which I do sometimes.)

Keeping these procedures in mind the class assignment is going to be a very short one. The idea is to draw….draw…draw… Below I have provided several examples of images that contain cubes. Some are very simple but repetitive. Choose whichever one of these you would like to draw OR you can choose an image of your own liking. Do the following:

1. Take a look closely at your chosen image and, in your mind, visualize the cubes that are contained in your picture. DO NOT visualize squares—visualize the cube as a three-dimensional object—the picture you are drawing is, after all, a picture of something three-dimensional.

2. Relative to the image, begin to flesh out the cubes on your paper—draw the entire cube or cubes as you see them.

3. Note their relationship to each other. Make sure that your proportions are correct. When you draw the cubes draw lightly restating your lines over and over until you get the image positioned an proportioned as you see fit. Start to flesh out the rest of the picture.

4. Darken those lines that you wish to keep—some lines on the three dimensional cube may not be seen in the picture that you draw so those lines DO NOT have to be darkened.

5. Add the detail to your image loosely again restating the lines until you are satisfied.

6. Once your sketch is complete, transfer the sketch to your vellum (tracing paper)—correct for perspective IF necessary.

7. Using your preferred method, transfer the image to your “good paper”.

8. Detail and fine-tune your image.

The beauty of this method is that you can take several images and create a composite image. You have a scene in a room, for example, that has no people but you have a sketch of a person who might fit in nicely—the solution is to transfer the person to your room drawing (adjusting for scale of course) and paint away.

For now, just concentrate on the cubes. If you have a drawing that you are working on and you do not have a lot of time, use that drawing for your exercise this week. However, this week I would also like you to take your sketchbook with you wherever you go and when you sketch—look for the cubes both man-made and in nature and see how many you can locate. Feel free to share your sketching with the rest of the class so that we may all learn from your experiences. Good luck and happy drawing!

Note from the Editor: This thread continues with the recent posts. The older posts can be found in this closed thread:

09-19-2012, 11:17 AM
I did some cube exercises in the last days (books, buildungs ...).

Here is my first assignment for class 3 - the silo



I`ll try the dice now.

Thanks for looking.

09-19-2012, 05:39 PM
And here are the dice (or dices?):



09-20-2012, 01:17 AM
Class three assignments



Ok around I thought I was drafting for a minute with the silo I was using a ruler and a compass but I went back over and darkened the lines and transfered it to another piece of paper using tracing paper. The dice I freehanded those i couldnt see the cube shape but I pictured a wierd looking y and thats how I got the dice.

09-20-2012, 09:24 AM
Very good job, Chris :clap::clap:.
As to "dices?", no: "dice" is the plural, the singular is - purely linguistically - "die", but very often "dice" is used for both the singular and plural :confused:.
You did very well in this class, please move on to class 4 :thumbsup:.

09-20-2012, 09:38 AM
Netta - Good job :clap:.
Two remarks:
-- the right dice does not look a real cube, it is too broad. There is no simple geometric to construct it correctly :lol:, just use your sense of proportion.

-- not about drawing but ... don't hold your camera at an angle towards your paper when taking photos. Hold it that the "line of sight" is square to the paper. As you did now, there is a perspective distortion in your drawing. Yes, indeed, "farther away looks smaller": the back of your paper is farther away than the front, and all the lines that you carefully drew "vertical" are now slanting in the photo :(.

This class is the cornerstone of the foundation classes. I suggest you do another exercise here :thumbsup:.

09-24-2012, 05:18 AM
Class three hey around I made some baby blocks and a book stand.



09-24-2012, 09:52 AM
Netta - Good progress :thumbsup:.
A few remarks:
First of all, as I said already, hold your camera straight to the drawing. Look how the side of the paper of the book stand drawing is completely askew. How do I know whether you drew the vertical lines vertically? Because that is - lacking the knowledge of how exactly you drew it - my second remark. In traditional, academic styles, vertical lines are always drawn / painted vertically. And IF you choose to draw in "3PP", it should follow the principle "further away looks smaller". We look down on the baby blocks, so the bottom is farther away and should be smaller than the top, not as you drew it. Again supposing that it is not the result of holding the camera at an angle :(.
A remark that holds true whatever how you took the picture is this, it is more of an aesthetic nature: don't imagine the 2 VP's (left and right) so close together, put one of them far outside the paper (you can - learn to - eyeball the VL's, it is not critical if far away). As you did there is an unpleasant and unnatural sharp corner at the front.

Keep up the good work :thumbsup:.

09-27-2012, 12:36 PM
Sorry for being so slow completing the classes. Life gets in the way of my happy fun time. lol.


09-27-2012, 05:18 PM
Good job, Nicky:clap:.

10-13-2012, 05:33 PM
I set out to do this exercise from life. First, here is a photo of the subject. (My wife kindly cleaned up the mess on the floor before I was finished with the. I tried to recreate the boxes to the best of my abilities and shaded from there. That's why there's an extra label on the top box in the final drawing -- I didn't notice that I had turned that box around.)


It took a couple of tries to get the sketch right. I had to really focus to project the boxes onto an imaginary 2D surface in front of my eyes. After a while the high-school trigonometry -- at least what's left of it -- started to kick in. To measure an angle, it is sometimes easier to find the right angle triangle and measure the lines; especially when one is eyeballing it using a pen and a thumb. When the sketch didn't look right, I made sure to backtrack to find the error and redo whatever needed to be redone from there (or tossing the sketch if it was beyond saving).


To correct the perspective, I started by figuring out that, since I could see the top of the top lid, the eye level was slighly above the subject. From there, I was fairly easy to find vantage points. Particularly the lines at the bottom were too horizontal, at least relative to the 2PP.


After having transferred the sketch by applying an 8B pencil to the back and tracing the sketch on top of the final paper, I started shading. I found some errors, in particular the left, front side of the top lid which I had corrected towards the wrong VP. The bottom angles of the bottom box were too horizontal, not sure why. They seem reasonable in the perspective corrected sketch, but it may have been an error in the sketch transfer. Anyway, I corrected the wrong edges on the final drawing at the best of my capabilities by bringing out the ruler and correcting on the final drawing.

(And, yes, I cheated a bit in the rendering. The lines on the middle box are not drawn from the subject, neither is the half circles in the bottom drawer there.)


Lessons learned:

If there are useful guides on the subject, use them all. (I should have used the parallell patterns on the drawers to ensure the correct position and proportions of the other subjects)
If it difficult to estimate an angle from horizontal or vertical, try finding a right triangle and measure that instead.Looking forward to having any errors pointed out to me.

10-14-2012, 02:52 PM
Good job, Henrik :clap:. You got the perspective right (always very important for rectangular objects) :thumbsup:.
If it difficult to estimate an angle from horizontal or vertical It depends on the person, for some people estimating angles is easier than distances. A trick to fix an angle in memory between observing and jotting down is to name it as if reading the clock (small hand).
Keep up the good work :thumbsup:.

10-14-2012, 03:02 PM
Thanks, and thanks for the tip. Would you like another box drawing from me?

10-14-2012, 05:14 PM
... Would you like another box drawing from me? Class 3 is IMO the most fundamental of the entry classes. I think it is good to draw another exercise, but not a box, something where the "cubic" character is less obvious. There are some photos in the first postings of the thread that illustrate the idea. Choose from your own environment if you like :thumbsup:.

10-15-2012, 05:30 PM
Råda Säteri, a 18th century mansion in the area.



Sketch from life:


Perspective corrected sketch, partially measured from the reference photo as the slopes on particularly the gable wall were too horizontal.

The VP:s were far, far away on this one. I guess the VPs move farther to the sides as one gets farther away from the subject?


And the final drawing


Something feels off, but I can't figure out what. The building seems baloon-ish. There are two things I found working against me: getting the verticals vertical, and the right-most VP being too far away to acually find with my rulers. Maybe one of those lead me astray? :confused:

10-16-2012, 01:57 AM
After sleeping on it, it looks like the middle corner (between the side and the front) tilts leftwards, and that windows tilt towards the respective outsides. I tried to correct that in the sketch (see the vertical lines drawn with rulers), but those errors apparently got worse again when shading.

I will make some corrections of this tonight and submit a new version. If there are other errors, or if you think this is beyond saving, I'd be happy to hear.

Thank you in advance, and sorry for not giving it a nights sleep before submitting.

10-16-2012, 09:35 AM
Henrik - Good job so far.
The only issue for me is the leaning verticals :(. In painting / drawing houses, the walls are "always" vertical. With the recent explosion of simple cameras, everybody taking pictures, there is a naive tendency to believe that walls should lean inwards ("3PP perspective"). As one of my teachers said "photographs are pathological liars". But you drew the walls in the other direction :lol:.
I think the perspective is broadly correct :thumbsup:. The "balloon" effect is strengthened by cutting off the foreground in an asymmetric way.
I guess the VPs move farther to the sides as one gets farther away from the subject? Exactly, in architectural drawings, where everything is constructed from scratch, the principle is that the two lines between the observer and the VP's meet in a right angle.
Keep up the good work :thumbsup:.

10-16-2012, 03:27 PM
The only issue for me is the leaning verticals :(.
How about this? I also added some stone wall beneath the house, and some extra foliage.


Exactly, in architectural drawings, where everything is constructed from scratch, the principle is that the two lines between the observer and the VP's meet in a right angle.

Is this by convention, or does a proper perspective always look like this?

By the way -- thanks a million for helping out and spending time guiding strangers-on-the-Internet like me!

10-16-2012, 04:47 PM
Very well done, Henrik. Excellent result :clap::clap:.
Is this by convention, or does a proper perspective always look like this? It is partly convention. But then, linear perspective is partly convention, it is a mathematical approximation. It is in the first place a very useful tool, it saves you the burden of meticulously "measuring" every window sill for instance.
You did very well in this class, please move on to class 4 :thumbsup:.

10-19-2012, 02:42 PM
Hi Arnoud,

here are some of the objects I have done over the last few days using a cube as a frame.

A window and bricks.


A milk carton


and a speaker and PC mouse



10-19-2012, 03:44 PM
Excellent work, Cal :clap::clap:.
Please move on to class 4 :thumbsup:.

12-20-2012, 09:49 PM
Here is my first assign. I was disappointed to see that this took me 1 1/2hrs. The example was a 15min sketch. :o I had a hard time finding the proper perspective on the roofs, so if you could correct and explain that would be appreciated. C & C please!

12-21-2012, 05:39 AM
Richard - A careful first approximation :thumbsup:.
Remember this was presented as a rough sketch, to be corrected for perspective. As a very tall building, the perspective effect must be subdued, in order to avoid an unpleasant distortion. But still it should be consistent.
All receding walls run parallel, so they must converge to the same VP.


In more detail:
1: could be correct if the silo was built on a slope, but then the door could not be opened.
2: could be correct if the gutters were on a different level, not probable.
3: that would mean that you look at the building from a nearby tower; a receding line looks horizontal if on the EyeLevel. But then all other VL's should rise, converge to the same level.
The two remaining lines converge elegantly and IMO define the HL and VP (off the paper).

12-29-2012, 04:50 PM
Hope everyone had a Merry Christmas...back at it with some perspective correction. Seems more accurate this time but all my drawings seem to tilt or skew. Dont notice it while drawing its not until i scan it that im like?? C&C plz.
Also here is the dice

12-29-2012, 10:12 PM
Ok here is a life drawing of my TV and fireplace. C&C plz. (The angle of the pic is slightly diff than where i sat to draw it).

12-30-2012, 03:30 AM
Well done, Richard :clap:.
The perspective is OK, and there is a good start on shading.
One "knack" to develop is to draw the correct depth of the objects. The dice just don't look as perfect cubes. There is a complicated geometrical method for (for architects), but it is better to develop your "eye" :thumbsup:.
You did very well in this class, please move on to class 4 :music:.

01-05-2013, 01:50 AM
Hello, checking in with my cube drawings, here are some things I found around the house, I'm working with an ipad and can't seem to attach more than one photo to the post, so I will stick something more complex in another post. Th vintage vase has a square flared base, that transitions into a octagon at the top, it took me a few goes to capture the shape ... Still not perfect.

01-05-2013, 01:54 AM
And here are a page of more cube like things, all from around the house, I think I get it, but I feel the need to draw something more complex .... Should I?
And a note, that the vp's are all different for each object, I just kept filling the page.

01-05-2013, 03:27 AM
Knitknitfrog -
Nice sketches :clap:.
But... did you read the "Start Here" thread? This classroom is - a little bit - organized.

01-05-2013, 01:12 PM
I thought I did, but that was some weeks ago, I am off to retread and mend my ways ....

01-05-2013, 05:29 PM

01-11-2013, 12:56 PM
I know that we are meant to take this class on our own time, but I feel like I'm skipping class when I"m not working on this :lol:

So I was looking around, trying to find some cubes, when I remembered this one really weird house near my school. So, I walked down there, took a picture, and here it is:


I'll actually get to drawing this soon, but I thought I should at least get this picture out here, just to show that I am alive :lol:

01-11-2013, 05:41 PM
Could be some challenge :lol:.

01-16-2013, 09:33 PM
Here's my dice. This took me a while. I had to re-do the sketch several times because they didn't seem square or in proportion to one another (you can see the erased marks). Anyway, here's the initial sketch (you can see that I taped a page to a large piece of cardboard so I could draw the lines all the way out to the vanishing points):
Then I transferred to my sketchbook using transfer paper and finished them:
Very challenging but I really enjoyed it in the end.

01-17-2013, 10:43 AM
Lee - Very well prepared, and a nice finished drawing :clap:.
There is only one disturbing point: look at the top planes in the finished drawing with "lazy" eyes. Do you see how the dice seem to stand on different tables? The tops are not in the same horizontal plane.
Now back to the sketch with the VP's. You forgot the second basic principle of perspective: people cannot have their eyes at two levels at the same time :lol:. So, there is only one horizon line aka eye level in a realistic drawing/painting. You put the VP's of the left and right dice on very different horizon lines.
Pay attention to it in your future work :thumbsup:.

01-22-2013, 06:24 PM
Thanks! You know, I looked and looked at that top plane and I was convinced that it wasn't on the same plane....:confused: anyway, after you pointed it out, I took the original photo and drew the lines to the VP and I'm convinced now!:thumbsup:

Here are the next two drawings that I did. I did the silo a few days ago.


Then I did the view of the dresser/TV/stereo from the bedroom. The bedroom view was even harder to me than the other "smaller" drawings because all of the other ones, I could use a straight edge to approximate where the vanishing point would be or (for the dice) I did the layout on a piece of cardboard so I could draw the lines all the way out. The top of the dresser was barely visible and the top of the TV, stereo, and speakers was not visible so I believe the horizon line was right at the top of the TV. But I really struggled with the edges of the dresser and speakers that go into the page. Anyway, let me know what you think.


01-23-2013, 05:27 PM
Good job, Lee :clap:.
On the silo: the "right" side is very accurately constructed, but the front is a bit out of proportion. "Further away looks smaller". The left wall is farther away - albeit slightly - than the right wall, as we can see the corner and both front and right walls. You may ignore the convergence of the front, but drawing it diverging is simply not correct.


There are some small errors in the room view, but the perspective is not very pronounced, so it is OK for a sketch.
You worked hard in this class, please move on to class 4 :thumbsup:.

01-24-2013, 08:00 PM
Yeah! Thanks Arnoud! Hmmm, yeah, I can see the error of the diverging lines....

01-25-2013, 01:26 PM
I went for the clock pic...I've spent 2 days wrestling with it and I finally think I've got it, but it took using the light table as a slight crutch, to get the starting points. My "freehand" attempts were pathetic and I'm not sure if I'm even supposed to be trying it that way? This seems way, way over my head and expertise. If it helps, my study so far has been some basic drafting, drawing cartoons, pen and ink sketching..ala..Danny Gregory and most recently Lee Hammond style with photo reference and grid, which is how I managed this drawing. What I'm trying to get to is the point where I can look and see and draw without the grid and have it look reasonably correct. I'm about to decide that it's two totally different techniques and my "freehand" will always be somewhat skewed looking? Or do I just need tons more practice for 5+years until I get good enough?? Very frustrated...hoping for some insight. Sorry this seems to be a rant...but I don't mean it as such...I'm genuinely lost on what my expectations should be as an beginning artist.

Anyway...here's the drawing..finished:


01-25-2013, 05:57 PM
Luc - Very well done :clap:.
What I'm trying to get to is the point where I can look and see and draw without the grid and have it look reasonably correct. When used sensibly, gridding is also a powerful tool for learning to draw accurately, for developing your sense of proportion, size and distance. Used sensibly: like sidewheels when learning to ride a bike, they protect you from falling, but must not be so low that it's like a tricycle and you don't develop your sense of balance.

- Gradually use coarser squares.
- Don't rely exclusively on the grid, look also for relative size, for the angle (very important!)
- Start curves in segments of straight lines (angles again!), to be smoothed later on.

Keep up he good work :thumbsup:

01-25-2013, 08:43 PM
Thx for the tips...I'm still trying to convey where my confusion lies, but I'm not doing it very well. Below is an example of my "normal sketching". I did this all freehand, with the exception of measuring the initial size of the drawing to get the right scale and also the starting point at the tip of the roof. From there I sketched it and built it up by sight-- no grids, rulers, light tables, etc.

So once again, my question is, how do you get from this drawing to the level I drew in my previous drawing without rulers, light tables, and major perspective lines drawn everywhere? Or am I still missing something. To me they are two totally different techniques to achieve the desired outcome. Which is why I'm confused over this lesson and also several of the following, because the complexity of the subjects, seem to be far advanced to learn about simple forms...?? And yes I do have the Reyna book and his examples are not nearly this complex and much easier to achieve and evaluate. I really want to proceed in this course, but I'm still very frustrated and may have to step back and build up more skill or drawing experience and/or confidence before moving forward...cause this has been very stressful the past couple of days.

Thanks so much for your help and I really am trying to understand this, but I'm kind of on my own little island, teaching myself with books, without a lot of external feedback, which is why I thought this course would be helpful.


01-26-2013, 11:13 AM
Luc -
To me they are two totally different techniques to achieve the desired outcome. No, in your case the difference in the state of mind. You succeeded in nice, careful and accurate - in the sense that you did not cross the outlines - shading and details in the previous assignment. So you have already a reasonable control over the pencil -- if you slow down and pay the necessary attention to it. Then for "freehand" you geared yourself up to fast forward and lost the intention (possibly without realizing it yourself) to work accurately.
Sure, getting the big outlines in correct proportion is difficult, but I'm sure you could do much better in details like this:


1. Slow down, this is not a race.
2. Practice makes perfect, but you need patience.
3. Even Leonardo Da Vinci had to correct some lines in his sketches. Compare reference and sketch with whatever means you have and correct. Don't erase the wrong line - honestly! Time enough when tracing the final sketch on "good" paper. That is one of the legitimate uses of a light table.

cathartic creativity
02-02-2013, 09:38 PM
i re-did the dice drawing. not sure its any better. not so sure why the second die is so much bigger :confused: http://www.wetcanvas.com/Community/images/02-Feb-2013/318471-Scan_2.jpeg

02-03-2013, 09:44 AM
cathartic -
not so sure why the second die is so much bigger :confused: I'm pretty sure why -- because you drew it larger :lol:.
Joking apart, the front verticals are almost at the same distance from the observer, so draw them first at the same size.
But I see a much bigger problem, "you can only have one horizon line aka eye level"
Dice A is within reasonable limits, we're no architects after all. But B is not consistent on its own, and is definitely not in the same space as A :(

Keep up the good work :thumbsup:

cathartic creativity
02-03-2013, 10:52 AM
yeah, hte same issue with trying to make VPs off the page. i extended another piece of paper, but it was so troublesome.

02-03-2013, 12:46 PM
yeah, the same issue with trying to make VPs off the page. i extended another piece of paper, but it was so troublesome. Hi,
But why not follow me and doing it on the computer ? If you need photo-manipulation software, Gimp is completely free :thumbsup:. The latest version for Windows is here (http://gimp-win.sourceforge.net/stable.html). It has a steeper learning curve than (expensive) Photoshop, but you need only a few functionalities, and a very extensive tutorial can be found here (http://gimp-savvy.com/BOOK/index.html).

cathartic creativity
02-03-2013, 06:17 PM
well that doesn't help when i am trying to draw it! :D i guess i wish i could figure it out without too much fuss. maybe that is asking too much :lol:

02-04-2013, 03:00 AM
well that doesn't help when i am trying to draw it! :D i guess i wish i could figure it out without too much fuss. maybe that is asking too much :lol:
On the contrary ! The best way to learn is draw it first, then check (perspective lines, measuring, ...) and correct freehand, check again.

cathartic creativity
02-04-2013, 11:31 AM
hmmm...ok. that seems maybe a little easier. if i did it in photoshop for awhle to check, will it eventually come easier?

02-04-2013, 12:31 PM
hmmm...ok. that seems maybe a little easier. if i did it in photoshop for a while to check, will it eventually come easier? Yes, definitely, you'll give yourself feedback as if by a "life" teacher, learning to see where you tend to err :thumbsup:.

02-24-2013, 10:44 AM
This is my sketch so far...


02-24-2013, 01:18 PM
Very good job, dahlialia :clap:.

02-25-2013, 12:38 PM
Thanks arnoud.

Here is my finished sketch, and my dice.



03-02-2013, 03:39 PM
I hope it's ok to give this one bump; I think my last post might have gotten missed amongst the site downtime.

03-02-2013, 04:00 PM
I think my last post might have gotten missed amongst the site downtime.
Yes, sorry, I was out of contact for a while :(.
This is very well done, dahlialia :clap:.
Please move on to class 4 :thumbsup:.

03-03-2013, 03:32 AM
This took a while..
Too much work and not enough time..


and I did some quick sketches of cubic objects a few days ago..

03-03-2013, 03:18 PM
Well done, flug :clap:.
Take care when drawing small "cubic"objects not to loose the perspective idea. Strongly retreating lines cannot run parallel in the drawing.


That is the engineers' method of drawing, but (realistic) artists are assumed to draw in perspective.
You did very well in this class, please move on to class 4 :thumbsup:.

03-04-2013, 04:55 AM

03-05-2013, 01:22 PM
Very good so far, Huan :clap:.

03-05-2013, 09:43 PM
http://www.wetcanvas.com/Community/images/05-Mar-2013/1183928-cubic1.jpg http://www.wetcanvas.com/Community/images/05-Mar-2013/1183928-clock.jpg

03-06-2013, 09:48 AM
Well done, Huan :clap:.
You're copying the photos very well, for a faster progress I'd advise to draw from real life :thumbsup:. It will give you a better understanding of the 3D forms.
Please move on to class 4 :thumbsup:.

03-07-2013, 10:33 AM
Thanks for your advice, Arnoud
I will post some real life drawing exercises in following classes:)

03-31-2013, 04:32 PM
Here are my entries. First I attempted a drawing of the..uhm..is it a university or something like that? Anyway, the building, but my lazyness won when I noticed I drew it far too small to shade it properly. therefore, I left it as a simple sketch:

Then, the dices:

I insanely tried to give some perspective to the circles too :)

04-01-2013, 01:11 PM
Very well done, Fabio :clap:.
Nice work, please move on to class 4 :thumbsup:.

04-09-2013, 12:13 PM
Well I'm finally back with my homework for Class 3. I had to put this assignment in time out several times due to frustration. It may not show it but I have drawn a zillion cubes over the last few weeks. I have also noticed that I want to draw everything as if I am seven feet tall !

Thanks so much for taking the time to review these submissions, it is very much appreciated.


04-09-2013, 02:54 PM
Oops I forgot....I have a question as well:

Is 'camera distortion' the effect of objects in photographs looking like they are leaning back ? Like in the pictures of the clock tower and the pair of dice ?


04-09-2013, 06:18 PM
Well done, Sue :clap:.
One remark: the grout lines of the tiles and on the short side of the wall are all running parallel in real life. So they should converge to only one VP.
Is 'camera distortion' the effect of objects in photographs looking like they are leaning back ? Indeed that is one of the possible distortions, the most obvious. Professional cameras (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/View_camera#Rise_and_fall) have implements to counteract it. And advanced image manipulation programs have functions to correct it afterwards. Another frequent distortion is "barrel distortion"


In pictures without clean parallel lines, these distortions won't be so obvious, hence the advice to draw very often from life, to get a good understanding of the correct proportions.

04-10-2013, 11:12 AM
I have fixed, well changed at least, the "parallel" lines on the short side of the wall. I know I "learned" better in the last lesson, but obviously my left brain has been in charge around here too long :D .

Thanks for the camera distortion example. Blimey, I think I will just stick to real life objects - my brain is busy enough without having to 'fix' camera distortion as well!


04-10-2013, 02:45 PM
Good job, Sue :thumbsup:.
I have fixed, well changed at least, the "parallel" lines on the short side of the wall. :wave:

05-18-2013, 11:52 PM
Well here are my dice. I really don't like how they turned out . I tried my best though.


Also I keep getting them at weird angles. I think I need a better eraser or practice on not make my lines so dark ( it's a bad habit and not sure how to break it ) since it's really hard to make my mistakes go away . I also don't want to make a lot of mistakes because the marks are always there . :(

And I tried my best not to make one of the die taller than the other but it still looks like that . :(

05-19-2013, 09:48 AM
Catherine - You're off to a good start :thumbsup:.
Remember to check all parallel lines for errors of perspective, until you get the necessary "gut feeling".
Just one example:
BTW, all lines of a set of parallel lines share a VP. Mind that they can be from different objects. Perspective is not a property of objects, it is caused by an optical phenomenon, and the rays of light don't remember where they come from :lol:.

I also don't want to make a lot of mistakes because the marks are always there .
And I tried my best not to make one of the die taller than the other but it still looks like that . Keep correcting the errors that you see, that is the best way to "learn to see". And when you think you saw everything, lay it aside for some hours, and compare again, you'll find more errors :lol:. On the problem of faulty lines staying visible, you could have read in the first post of this class how to proceed (the procedure numbered 1 to 8). And if your sketch becomes too confusing, you can always take an intermediate copy of what is correct ("step 6") and continue from there :thumbsup:. BTW, you don't need tracing paper if you use a lightbox.
Keep up the good work :).

05-19-2013, 02:01 PM
Okay! I tend to get a light box! Well I had some tracing paper lying around but I couldn't really transfer it well on the printer paper so it's still sketchy.

Hopefully it looks better.


05-20-2013, 04:08 AM
Catherine - It is better, but ...
Keep correcting the errors that you see, that is the best way to "learn to see". And when you think you saw everything, lay it aside for some hours, and compare again, you'll find more errors Now a day later, do you see? The left dice still looks higher than wide. And I gave only one example of a perspective error, there are more...
Sometimes it is easier, faster, more productive, to restart from scratch. The problem with the left dice is such a case, because all edges must be changed.
I tend to get a light box! You can improvise one


or even use the window in bright daylight, but better not with the sun in your eyes :lol:.

05-22-2013, 01:06 PM
It's been a while, this took longer than I care to admit. ty

05-22-2013, 03:14 PM
Welcome back, Lauren :)
Looks very good, well done :thumbsup:.
This class is the real foundation of understanding how to "see". I'd advise to draw another cubic object(s) before moving on.

05-22-2013, 03:45 PM
Do you advise using a ruler? I tried drawing it how I saw it first then sort of tried to use an edge to line up what I saw with what was on the paper? If that makes sense? When I draw what I see without holding an edge up for reference I end up with all sorts of weird angles! Will do another. :) ty

05-22-2013, 05:46 PM
Do you advise using a ruler? I tried drawing it how I saw it first then sort of tried to use an edge to line up what I saw with what was on the paper? If that makes sense? When I draw what I see without holding an edge up for reference I end up with all sorts of weird angles! Will do another. :) ty -- Using a ruler for guiding the pencil: yes for vanishing lines - or other auxiliary lines that are not kept in the final drawing. For the drawing itself, it is the way architects and technical draughtsmen used to draw (in the pre-computer era). Then your work will look like a technical drawing. If that is the intention, fine :thumbsup:.
-- Using to check angles: excellent :thumbsup:. It is one of many methods to check your accuracy.
With all checking and measuring methods, it is generally accepted that you learn faster if you do not start with measuring. Draw first, then check.

05-26-2013, 12:40 AM
Been awhile. Drawing anxiety has not been kind to me but I tried my best again. > <


The left die still looks pretty bad though. I think I need to redo it. This is really hard or I'm just slow..

05-26-2013, 05:45 AM
Well done, Catherine :clap:.
There are no fundamental errors in this drawing. I suggest to start on another reference.You are not slow, really, you made already a big progress :thumbsup:. And remember the "learning curve", its always slow in the beginning. But I think you will progress much faster from now on.

05-26-2013, 01:44 PM
Wow really? Awesome! I'm quite proud myself. I just have to keep double checking with a ruler ,I guess, and then I'll be fine! : D

Hmm not sure if I can do one of the other pictures since it's not just cubes though but I'll try.

05-26-2013, 02:42 PM
Hmm not sure if I can do one of the other pictures since it's not just cubes though but I'll try. This class is so important because many complicated forms can be conceived as drawn inside one or more cubes - well, rectangular parallelepipeds to be mathematically correct :lol:. So when in doubt about the correct orientation, sketch the cube(s) correctly, then draw the object inside.

05-27-2013, 12:45 PM
I think I understood what you meant. Well here's my first try at the silo.
It still looks crooked at the bottom but I think that's because I did the bottom part first.

Also I had trouble with the top part.

05-27-2013, 05:13 PM
Good job, Catherine :thumbsup:.
Yes, there are errors in it, but I think we'd better skip it. To be able to draw realistically, you need to "read" the 3D form represented by the flat form on your paper. That is difficult to learn by copying 2D references. My suggestion is to draw from life, look for "cubic" objects in your environment and draw them. Never mind to post photo references together with your drawing. Expressing the feeling of a 3D object in your drawing is more important than an exact copy.

05-27-2013, 06:16 PM
Oh okay! I'll try and look around the house for some!

07-04-2013, 06:53 PM
Here are some of the quick sketches of cube forms I've been doing as suggested in last paragraph of assignment. Next post is progress on the drawing assignment and a couple of quick questions.




07-04-2013, 07:34 PM
For the drawing assignment I chose to draw from life a cabin shaped bird feeder that's inside for some minor repairs.

Photo taken after having used my table for something else & attempting to reset. And it's not exact angle, eye-level, viewpoint from my eyes while drawing, but close enough to get the idea. (WHOOPS: In reviewing this post I see I should have cropped the white portion off the top of the photo & don't know how to suspend the post in draft to go back and correct it --please scroll down).


Here is the initial sketch--with no erasures, although I was mightily tempted:lol:. As you can see I had quite a dilemma envisioning the vanishing point on the left hand side, even with attempting to sight the angles in with my pencil -- but decided to let it go and work on it in the next phase.


Tracing and checking perspective phase. Used thread anchored with masking tape to make eye-level line and check perspective. Did major correcting on the left side. I found I was off on face-of-walls lines (a thread anchored only at the vanishing point that I could move at the other end came in very handy for doing those!), which made my windows off quite a bit, too and corrected that as well. I think the verticals could use a bit more straightening in places when I do the drawing on better paper.
QUESTION 1: I don't know what to do about the angle, ends of pitched roof that are neither vertical nor horizontal. Are they treated like vertical? so lines perpendicular to the horizontals would all be parallel?(the two ends in my drawing are close to parallel but not exact as I used the vertical of the window as a guide for placement of the upper corner. Thought I'd best find this out before I put in lines to indicate the tiles.
QUESTION 2: What is the process for rubbing the back of the paper with graphite? -- is it just using side of pencil lead or are there other tools/supplies for that? I have a photo light box I can use and also some graphite paper, but am curious about the other method.


07-05-2013, 03:31 PM
This is very well done, Lee :clap::clap:.
@ vertical lines: the traditional way is to draw them vertically. Drawing the vertical lines converging in a tall building (the "3PP" effect) is a photographic distortion. Even in the first decades of photography, when most photographers had an artistic upbringing, they took every measure to avoid it - see for instance here (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/View_camera).
@ sloping lines: they have also a VP, but not on the horizon :). Their VP lies above or below the HL, obviously depending on the direction of the slope, and perpendicularly over or under the VP of their ground plan. E.g. for a roof, the walls of the house. But in many cases you don't need to construct them, there are easier ways:
@ rubbing the back of the paper: it is as you said, with a very soft pencil. (If transferring to canvas for a painting, charcoal is very effective). It is most useful if you have a lightbox, but the target medium is not translucent. Put the drawing side down on the box and rub the back only where there are lines to be transferred :thumbsup:.

07-05-2013, 09:50 PM
I just tried the "how to draw a pitched roof" method on a scrap of paper while here at the computer and it worked like a charm! WOW. THANK YOU!!When I get ready to transfer to drawing paper, I'm going to try out the rubbing graphite method. Found the article about view cameras interesting.


07-07-2013, 04:49 PM
Here is the completed drawing assignment. I extended left edge so it looked more in proportion. --Lee


07-07-2013, 05:08 PM
Very well done, Lee :clap::clap:.
You're ready for the next class :thumbsup:. Please move on to class 4 :music:.

07-19-2013, 06:17 PM
As my goal is to paint alla prima, (plein air and the figure) I chose to draw some dice from life. Although, my note to self is to choose a larger subject next time, since I think my eyes might be permanently crossed from staring at such a tiny subject for so long. :wink2: :lol:

07-20-2013, 01:55 PM
Good job, monarch :clap:.

07-21-2013, 06:24 PM
I had thought we were supposed to draw this old building (I reasoned if the original teacher took the time to draw something out for us, it must have some deep lesson to be learned, lol). I realize now that it was only a rough sample sketch. Nevertheless, I did want to ask the correct angles on the doors and other parts of the building, so I'm posting it here. Thank you! :)

07-22-2013, 11:26 AM
....Nevertheless, I did want to ask the correct angles on the doors and other parts of the building, so I'm posting it here. Thank you! First choose the horizon line aka the eye level. As we may assume that the observer is walking on ground level, the HL will be about at the top of the door. It is a very high building (it is a "antique" wooden grain silo (http://www.wetcanvas.com/RefLib/showphoto.php?photo=67644)), the observer is far away if he sees the complete building, so the VP's are far away.

07-24-2013, 09:08 PM
Hi Arnoud, thanks for the silo sketch with the correct angles. It actually helped me on this new drawing, too.

I wanted to ask you if the perspective is right on this one before I proceed. The right side was really hard and I just had to guess because the bottom lines are actually all covered with shrubbery. But I don't think the lines all converge at the vanishing point, but that is how the windows really look (to my eyes at least, lol.) And if I try to make them match the foundation line they seem too slanted, although that could be wrong because I am guessing where it is. Or maybe in the complexity of the drawing I have forgotten something else important?

I can already see one correction I need to make, on the bottom of the concrete steps. Also it seems like some of my verticals are not vertical, but I didn't notice that till uploading it here. (?)

When you do a drawing of a house, do you put in things like the drainpipes and vents on the roof, or is it better to leave them out? Thank you so much for your help! :cat:

07-25-2013, 01:05 AM
After some more wrestling with the pencil and eraser, and a lot of blood, sweat and tears (just kidding!), I suddenly remembered about the Horizon Line. The bottoms of the windows on the right side of the house are almost ON the horizon line, so they SHOULD be almost level, not angled...is that correct? That is exactly what I had learned with the front door on the old silo...and yet I forgot to incorporate it into this drawing, somehow. At least, I'm thinking that is correct.

I also tried to fix a few more of the mistakes I saw...tried to straighten verticals so I'm hoping the house is not expanding outward this time. And even though the shrubbery (in real life) makes it very hard to determine the right side of the house, I think it is more accurate now. The drainpipes and roof vents in real life are quite noticeable...do things like that belong in a drawing?

07-25-2013, 03:49 PM
Well done, monarch :clap:, nice sketch so far.
I think it not consistent with the architectural style to have a roof with unequal plate heights. Probably some perspective error :lol:.


How far to go with details? Really the artist's choice. You can see many solicitations for "house portrait" on the internet. So, definitely include details that make the house individual.

07-26-2013, 01:23 AM
Hi Arnoud,

Here is a drawing of the dice. Spent a long time, trying to get this right. I know I'm off somewhere. I have also started a very rough sketch of shelves, light fixtures at a Starbucks. But not ready to post yet at all. If you want me to do the dice over, of course, I will.



07-26-2013, 05:22 AM
Chris -
Which side is further away from us, a or b?



07-26-2013, 01:53 PM
Hi Arnoud,

I'm on break at work and just wanted to see what you had to say. Oh my God, you're so kind because I forgot again!!!! Further away is smaller and " a " is further away! I will fix this once I'm at home. Thank you for being so patient with me.


07-27-2013, 04:51 AM

07-27-2013, 11:15 PM
Hi Arnoud,

I'm attaching 2 photos, still having a hard time.




07-28-2013, 02:58 AM
Well done, Chris :clap:.
Keep up the good work :thumbsup:.

08-04-2013, 11:16 PM
Hi Arnoud,

This shelving unit that I am attaching was one that I saw in a Starbucks. It actually had double the shelves, but I had quite the time just drawing one set of shelves that I thought I better submit this drawing as is. I did try to remember further is smaller and actually looked up shelving units drawn in perspective on the internet. Anyways, here is my effort:



08-05-2013, 03:03 PM
Good job, Chris :clap:.
One remark: don't you agree that the top of the cupboard part doesn't look horizontal, I wouldn't put a valuable vase on it :lol:.
This is very difficult to correct freehand. In defence of perspective - often looked upon as something to annoy pupils with :lol: - look how easy it is, just make sure the VL's run in a consistent way:


All together you did well in this class, please move on to class 4 :thumbsup:

08-05-2013, 09:02 PM
Thanks so much Arnoud onto class 4.


08-08-2013, 12:39 AM
"I think it not consistent with the architectural style to have a roof with unequal plate heights."

I was starting to think it was a rogue architect that designed the house, lol! :lol:

This drawing was really challenging. Please let me know which items need correction (perspective and/or anything else.) Thank you!

P.S. At the entry by the front door, it's supposed to be a shadow in there, but now that I look at in on this site, it looks more like a tree or something, instead of the play of light and shadows. How should I have handled that, when that's how it looked in real life? (lol, it didn't look like a tree, but it had that shape.)

08-08-2013, 03:21 PM
monarch - Very well done, strong forms and nice details :clap:.
I can't see a tree-like shadow. It shows that imagination can construct shapes that aren't really there, in clouds for instance.
One aspect to keep in mind, so that you can choose: strong continuous outlines have their place in technical drawings, illustration, comics, some "modern" styles in fine art. But not in traditional realistic styles: we do not see outlines, it is the result of an analysis, hence its use in technical drawings. Particularly when a change of plane is already evident from the tone, don't put the line there if you want a realistic style. I edited your drawing in one place to show the difference.


I think you did very well in this class, you may move on to class 4 :thumbsup:.

08-21-2013, 12:24 AM
Thanks for the good instruction, arnoud. I tried to do a little erasing to remove some of the outlines, but discovered it is harder to erase those than I expected. Possibly it's just cheap paper (leftover sketch pad from one of the kids from a high school art class) or else I just drew my lines too deeply to be easily erased. At any rate, I can see how it would improve this type of drawing, so hopefully I'll remember and use it in the future!

See you in class 4! :)

edit: now I can see I got the line on the roof wrong...funny how sometimes I don't see something until I've posted it...:eek:

09-04-2013, 09:21 AM
Hi again Arnoud,
So I'm feeling frustrated at the idea of putting in detail when I'm not even sure I'm getting this exercise correct. :( I did draw it out first before trying to make the lines more defined and I think this may have left me a bit squiffy in my shapes. Is that what you meant by "see"? Also the edge of the tea box is a bit bevelled incase you wonder why the line in curved.
Do you think I should stop messing with boxes and try another cubic subject to draw? :confused:

Cheers Lauren

09-04-2013, 06:12 PM
Hi, Lauren, good start.
The right corner of the lower box doesn't look right, does it? It is too sharp. To see whats the reason, lets draw some VL's. Remember, perspective is a tool.


I feel that the table has the correct EL, it "looks nice". But then we see that A has its VP too high, although the visual effect is not too much disturbing. But clearly B is much too low.
Do you think I should stop messing with boxes and try another cubic subject to draw? Yes, I think that would be a good idea :thumbsup:

09-09-2013, 01:40 AM
Cubes! Love 'em. Looking at my piece now I feel like I should have done the dice. I will share anyhow though. :)

09-09-2013, 11:25 AM
Very well done, Delofasht :clap:.
Looking at my piece now I feel like I should have done the dice.
Yes, you chose a difficult reference to start with. The camera distortions are very distracting.
Keep up the good work :thumbsup:.

10-19-2013, 09:00 AM
Hi Arnoud!

The first two assignments are drawn from "real life".



and the dice:

I used ruler, because there was no other way to find the accurate vanishing points for all objects and then I darkened the lines without it.


10-19-2013, 01:15 PM
Very well done, Aphrodite :clap:.
The perspective is completely correct.
The drawings have a technical look. If you want to avoid that, don't use lines (draw them very light first, then integrate them in the shading) where the edge is already identified by a difference in tone (grayness).
Good job in this class, please move on to class 4 :thumbsup:.

10-20-2013, 03:57 AM
Alright Arnoud!
By the way, you are so right when you say that perspective is a tool. :)

Thanks again!

11-19-2013, 02:59 PM
OK so despite my roasting from Arnoud in Class 2 :) and the fact I think I must have either squinty eyes or a wonky brain I am biting the bullet and posting my effort at the dice.

11-19-2013, 03:56 PM
Rosalyn - Nice work :clap:.
Just one remark - I said this was the second class on perspective :evil: - remember the funny railroad tracks ?
All VP's of horizontal lines must lie on the one and only horizon line.


You don't have to redo this, pay attention to it in your following exercises :thumbsup:.

11-20-2013, 02:52 AM
Yeah, these were really difficult and I got confused as the cube at the front looked like the left should be further away but it was bigger than the right. I used ruler to measure but on the drawing board the lines went way off the page and looked like they actually went in the same direction but when I had to resize the photo for upload it all went wonky again. I don't know how I can adjust this as my photos are always too big for upload and any slight difference is magnified when they get halved. :(

11-20-2013, 10:52 AM
...any slight difference is magnified when they get halved. :( Hi, Rosalyn - It seems you didn't already see this very common advice: Step back often to judge your work in the early stages, when you can easily correct it.
Of course that has the same effect as scaling it down on the computer. Walking away from the easel after each stroke was a standard learning method in the 19th century academies. Another "trick" is to view your work in a mirror. Many painters with a well-equipped studio have a large mirror on the wall behind them, so turning back they can check their work in the mirror and from a distance without the need to walk away :lol:.
Keep up the good work :thumbsup:

11-21-2013, 01:55 AM
Hi Arnoud. I sit high on a stool at a technical drawing board to draw. When I paint I do generally stand back to see how it looks. I am just so used to scaled drawings on auto cad I never think to stand back but I will from now on. Thanks again.

Lazy wee beggars :)

11-21-2013, 09:39 AM
So, like the perspective I did weren't frustrating enough I thought I might use a photo of a house from a different view. My fingers and toes are crossed as I post it.

11-21-2013, 11:06 AM
Very well done, Rosalyn, you've got it :clap:.
Please move on to class 4 :thumbsup:.

12-05-2013, 02:14 AM
All right, here is my try of the clock

I couldn't figure out how to get the right angle on the red lines and also struggled with trying to get the box with the clock in center of the box marked with green lines. I mean technically, besides my drawing disabilities :)

12-05-2013, 04:31 PM
Simo - Good job :clap:.
-- On the subject of perspective these classes are only scratching the surface. We are not treating oblique lines. In most cases their correct form can be derived from the context, for instance the roof of a house:

For very small parts as on this clock, you wouldn't see the difference between a "calculated" direction and one that is drawn intuitively.

-- Finding the centre of a rectangle and drawing concentric rectangles - in any perspective -is by the two diagonals:
If you intend to draw realistically, try to observe the proportions. This time your clock looks rather cartoonish. For instance the plinth of the top part looks out of proportion.

Keep up the good work :thumbsup:.

01-11-2014, 08:21 AM
Here is another go. The simple one with just the clock is a try to draw without paying too much attention to the VPs directly, adjusting it more with the eye.
Funny how you see the distortions so much clearer on the computer screen :lol:

01-11-2014, 03:10 PM
Good job, Simo :clap:. Well drawn.
And your "freehand" perspective is also very well executed :clap:.
Funny how you see the distortions so much clearer on the computer screen That is why the advice is often given to step back, look at your drawing or painting from a distance. Seeing your work smaller aids in identifying the shortcomings.
But ... - in your image, part of the distortion is IMO due to the camera lens. It looks very much an example of "barrel distortion".


Well done in this class, Simo, please move on to class 4 :thumbsup:.

01-25-2014, 09:04 PM
Here's my rendition of the mantle clock. I was going along really good when I got disturbed by the phone. when I came back, I picked up my pencil and went back to work. Didn't notice for a moment that I picked up the 4B instead of the B, and now my clock looks like a cartoon! I should redo it, but that's some hours invested there. That dark outline looks awful!


01-26-2014, 09:47 AM
Very well done, Tim :clap:.

01-26-2014, 09:41 PM
Thanks Arnoud!! Here's my dice. hope there nice. don't want to do them twice. Next time I'll draw some ice.:rolleyes:


01-27-2014, 05:44 AM
Tim - Nice drawing, good attempt at shading :clap:.
The right dice has the correct proportions, but look again at the left dice. The perspective is off, and observe how it does not represent a cube, the height is out of proportion.



01-27-2014, 06:15 PM
here's the redraw of the dice. Guess I did have to do them twice. :eek:


01-27-2014, 08:07 PM
I was going to add something to my last post but had a guest and my 60 min. timed out. I'm using this corel painters essentials 4 software, and I opened my scanned image using it, rotated the image and cropped it. why did it revert to the original orientation? I have GIMP on my computer, but haven't had time to figure it out. The manual is very lengthly and I really don't want to print it out. does anyone know of any good tutorials on GIMP?

01-28-2014, 08:34 AM
Good job, Tim :clap:.
Now it is correct for the subject matter of this class. But in reality the VP's of the left dice will lie further apart. The nearest corner of a cube can never - NEVER - be sharper than 90°. When you look completely down on it, it is 90°.


I've no experience with Painter, it could be that you have to do it the other way round, first cropping.
GIMP is very powerful, hence a large documentation. But the simple operations - cropping, scaling, rotating, straight lines, improving the contrast - are rather obvious if you have some experience with other graphic software. There is a very good online handbook (http://gimp-savvy.com/BOOK/index.html).

You did very well in this class, please move on to class 4 :thumbsup:.

03-24-2014, 06:24 AM

My assignments:




I will be happy to hear your comments. I tried to make the second dice look like as if it was in the air but now when I look at it, I think it looks like lying on a flat surface and the perspective seems distorted. M.

P.S. I did not find it but maybe there is an option to correct spelling before postig a message? It would be very helpful for non-native speakers.

03-24-2014, 02:15 PM
muikku -
Often my comments are that class 3 is in a sense the second class on perspective. So it would have been wise to wait for the remarks on the class 2 assignments. You made exactly the same errors as in the previous class. So I'd advice to finish class 2 first, and then revisit this class.
P.S. I did not find it but maybe there is an option to correct spelling before postig a message? The spelling checker is enabled by default as far as I know. But you'll have to correct the errors yourself. Hint: enter the word (in a separate browser tab) in Google: more often than not you will see the correct spelling.

03-24-2014, 03:09 PM
Ok, thanks. Back to the class 2 :angel:

03-27-2014, 07:58 PM
Hello it's me again. Um, I have been at it with my last project and got 4 objects but I seem to keep making them bigger than they are in real life so it's way out of proportion. Maybe I should go back to class 2 ? I just can't draw what I see. Also I can't get them at the exact angles as they are as well.

03-28-2014, 02:10 PM
Catherine - Nice to see you again. :)
I seem to keep making them bigger than they are in real life so it's way out of proportion.
I don't think I get it. In many many drawings, paintings, photos... the sizes of the objects are different than in real life :confused:.
Maybe I should go back to class 2 ?
I looked up your assignments in class 2. I think you understand the principles. The problem is to apply them on new work. That means diligent attention, much practice, checking and rechecking (with vanishing lines, not just by sight!)
I don't think going back would help much.

I just can't draw what I see. Also I can't get them at the exact angles as they are as well. Well, if you can see that it is wrong, nothing is lost. You can try and correct it. If still wrong, correct again, and again, until you think it is right :thumbsup:.
When people do not see that it is wrong, that is the real problem.
Keep focused :thumbsup:.

pixel blender
04-20-2014, 08:50 AM

I've made two of the assignments but I'm not happy whith the result. I think when I correct the perspective, the drawing gets even more different than the picture.

I've uploaded the three draws of the dices I made (sketch, perspective corrected and final) to check if I'm doing the process right. To find the perspective points, I try to establish the eye level, and then extend the line I think is more accurate to the reference to find one vanishing point. The same for the other point.

The first photo
Dices sketch
Dices perspective correction
Dices final

Thanks a lot!

04-20-2014, 05:48 PM
pixel blender -
Good job :clap:. The problem with the clock is not one of perspective, the perspective is basically correct. The issue are the proportions: the head is too big in comparison with the foot. Also, it is leaning back.
The dice is very well done :clap:. One remark, this corner is too sharp if you want to draw realistically. The nearest/lowest corner - if square in real life - can never be sharper than 90 ° in the drawing. The common error of putting the VP's too close together.


pixel blender
04-22-2014, 04:24 PM
Thanks for the comments, Arnoud.

I made another exercise, a building this time:


04-22-2014, 05:31 PM
Very well done, pixel blender :clap:.
Please move on to class 4 :thumbsup:.

04-25-2014, 12:09 PM
Assignment 1


04-25-2014, 12:09 PM
This was a quick free hand sketch so my be a little off

04-25-2014, 06:18 PM
Samantha -
OK for a first try.
This class - and several of the next classes - is for learning to see the underlying spatial ("3D") form. In this class the "cube".
You can hardly pretend that what you drew included cubes ?


Hint: think about what you learned in class 2 :thumbsup:.

04-27-2014, 10:03 AM
Seems when sketching I forget to use perspective this should have been my start point and then I should have corrected it right
I think I did the same to the tower so let me start again with the simple dice

04-27-2014, 12:02 PM

Ok I'm posting the tower without change I think I did this one better than the barn
I will be redoing the barn next

04-27-2014, 03:18 PM
Samantha -
Yes, well done :clap:. The underlying "cubic" forms are clearly indicated, and the perspective is convincing.
Only the spire looks odd, it doesn't seem to be in the right place. This is extremely difficult to get right "freehand". I cannot resist to show what a powerful tool perspective is (instead of a bugbear :lol:). Even without exotic geometric:


1 and 2: establish the VP's (approximative is enough)
3: find the ground plane of the spire, perspective-wise
4: find the centre vertical
5: :thumbsup:.

04-28-2014, 08:28 PM

Here are the dice
Hope these are ok

04-29-2014, 04:36 AM
Good job, Samantha, nicely done :clap:.
Please move on to class 4 :thumbsup:.

06-28-2014, 07:19 PM
Here are my attempts at cubes, dice first then of a snapshot I took of the entrance to a park.

http://www.wetcanvas.com/Community/images/28-Jun-2014/1443497-dice_2_500x441_2.jpg http://www.wetcanvas.com/Community/images/28-Jun-2014/1443497-Tonto_500x335.jpg http://www.wetcanvas.com/Community/images/28-Jun-2014/1443497-Tonto_Natl_Mon_500x315.jpg

Thanks for your help!

06-29-2014, 05:32 AM
Well done, Nancy :clap:.
Good study of cubic forms. Basic perspective is not complicated in itself, but it needs a lot of attention to get everything wright. There is an oversight in one of the dice:


You can also see it without drawing VL's; looking at the bottom, you see that the sides are at about the same angle. So the top should converge symmetrically as well.
Keep up the good work :thumbsup:.

06-30-2014, 07:57 PM
Here is the fix for the first dice drawing. And another slightly different viewpoint. Are these better?


07-01-2014, 10:21 AM
Nancy -
Are these better?
Yes, very much :clap:.
Well done, please move on to class 4 :thumbsup:.

07-01-2014, 12:16 PM
Hooray! I am working at these drawing classes so that I won't necessarily have to always rely on grids or light boxes for my artwork. I don't know how many people I know say that you don't have to be able to draw to be an artist.


07-01-2014, 02:43 PM
.... I don't know how many people I know say that you don't have to be able to draw to be an artist.... But most seasoned artists maintain that drawing is the foundation of all visual arts.

07-10-2014, 10:12 AM
Hello, here is my project for class 3. I used an image from the reference library. I'll first post the reference image, then my first attempt at the perspective drawing (for which I decided the proportions were way off so I had a second go at it), then my revised perspective drawing where I was checking proportions more carefully & switched to 1pp, then the finished drawing with all the details added. Thank you very much for looking!





07-10-2014, 05:47 PM
Excellent, Sara :clap::clap:.
Very nice drawing.
Please move on to class 4 :thumbsup:.

08-03-2014, 10:49 AM
So here is my picture of the dice. Decided to use colored pencil just for fun and extra practice. A couple of corners look a bit weird but that's scanner's doings. I shaded the corners a little bit to make them look less sharp but the scanner ate away more of the original lines that I thought.


08-03-2014, 02:53 PM
Well done, Minna :clap:.

08-26-2014, 03:13 PM
Arnoud - Here are a couple drawings I did for Class 3 on cubic forms. They were way more challenging than I expected with so many cubes combined in one image! I had a bit of trouble with my roof lines working themselves back to horizontal even when I told them to slope to the VP.Also, making the windows in the same perspective and making them look realistic. I feel the wing to the right on the house still is not quite right, the perspective I mean. In the photo of the house the far right wall does not look vertical, though it does on my paper. (The house was not falling down!). Same thing with the far side walls of the barns. They were vertical on the paper, really! Also had some struggle figuring out how to do sloped roofs in perspective but I hope solved that.


I have a question about the method though. Reading de Reyna's book on this lesson he said "do not erase!!" when you are trying to find the right perspective lines. Can you explain why not? My attempts get so messy I can't tell which line I have decided upon. Also, I think I tend to go too quickly to detail and then have to backtrack when i suddenly notice something not right and then have to trace the details.... impatience!!
Any tips?

All input appreciated.
Thanks, Barb

08-27-2014, 03:23 AM
Barb - Very nice :clap:.
In the photo of the house the far right wall does not look vertical, though it does on my paper. (The house was not falling down!). Same thing with the far side walls of the barns. They were vertical on the paper, really! Remember the very first principle of perspective "Further away looks smaller" ?
Humans tend to compensate, a camera cannot. Take care to point the camera perpendicular to the paper. http://www.wetcanvas.com/Community/images/27-Aug-2014/142886-camera-square.jpg
Best practice is to use a tripod and the self timer. To get it completely correct, put a little mirror flat against the drawing. If the camera "sees" itself in the mirror, it is correctly aligned.

This is when I straightened the edges of the paper with the "perspective tool" in the drawing software:

I have a question about the method though. Reading de Reyna's book on this lesson he said "do not erase!!" That is a general principle when sketching. If you erase the wrong line, you're back at square one. The wrong lines will in fact guide you in finding the correct form. The knack is to start with very faint lines, strengthening only very gradually.
And yes, practice makes perfect :).

You did very well in this class, please move on to class 4 :thumbsup:.

10-13-2014, 11:50 PM
Here is the sketch I used as inspiration for this assignment:

I messed around for a while shading and blending and had a good time. At the end I decided I would try to draw some clouds in the sky, though the composition and execution were both poor.

To my (apparently untrained) eye, the perspective looked good until l I drew in the perspective lines :(!

I find it very difficult to make the lines converge all at the same point, especially when there are multiple walls that need to be kept in proportion. For a more serious piece I guess it would be almost necessary to use tracing paper and transfer the corrected rough image onto a clean sheet. Can anyone provide a good link for how this is done? Everything I see comes up with a technique that seems different from what is described in the class notes. If I just put charcoal on the backside of a tracing paper that has my image drawn on it, would that not get charcoal smudges all over the new piece of paper? I have absolutely no experience with these materials


I suppose it may have been best to go with a photo in correct proportion rather than some out of proportion sketch for this assignment. I am going to give the dice a try

10-14-2014, 04:05 PM
Alex - Nicely done :clap:.

I cannot see when you checked the perspective, but it is strongly recommended to do it on the basic skeleton, before adding details and rendering.
I like your rendering very much :thumbsup:.

Transferring to the "good paper" can be done in many ways. A concise explanation is in the class on Colored Pencils (http://www.wetcanvas.com/forums/showthread.php?t=316172).
An intermediate "tracing paper" is only needed if you want to preserve the "original", e.g. from a book. I wouldn't use charcoal, but the softest graphite pencil, and applying it only under the lines to be transferred, not on the whole page. But very often the good paper is not so opaque that you cannot trace on it directly, on a lighttable. Nothing expensive, it can be improvised easily, as here:


Or even simply a PC monitor, tilted for comfort, displaying a white page.

10-17-2014, 01:04 AM
Thanks for the advice and the link Arnoud!

I just finished with the die and was a little sad to see some errors in the completed project. I checked everything after the initial guiding lines were down. I guess I messed some lines up while I was shading. The two closest edges of the dice converge way too soon. Also the lines going backwards on the top of the right die somehow went from converging in the skeleton to diverging in the final product. I thought I was being careful too! :confused:

I didn't really notice how badly I mangled the proportions of the top of the right dice while shading. Now my eye is just stuck on it whenever I look at this picture, I see nothing else; it's funny how that works :rolleyes:

Here it is:

10-17-2014, 03:26 PM
Good job, Alex :clap:.
Good for you to see the shortcomings, I have nothing to add :thumbsup:.
Yes, we all have the tendency to start freewheeling when busy in a repetitive job like rendering ("shading"). It is a general advice to stop regularly, and take some distance - literally and figuratively - to observe where you are going.
You did very well, please move on to class 4 :music:.

11-02-2014, 12:09 AM
Lesson 3 has proven to be a challenge for me. I've tried to draw the dice twice and still have issues. My first attempt is here, and I have added the checking lines at the end of the drawing. I can see the error on the blue lines, but my issue is more with the red and green lines.

Because the two dice are slightly rotated from each other, their top edges cannot be parallel lines. I mean, the top edges of one die are not parallel with the top edges of the other die. I believe this means the top edges of the two dice will have different VPs - but the rule is the two VPs must lie on the same horizontal line (same horizon).

I believe this means that the rate at which the green lines from the die on the left converge with each other, and the rate at which the green lines from the die on the right converge with each other - those two convergence rates are going to be different.

How do I make the green lines from the two different die converge properly with respect to the two dice?

The second drawing I have here is a barn that I drew from my mind. I had to correct the right side of the barn, as you might be able to see.



11-02-2014, 01:39 PM
Good job, Michael :clap:.
I believe this means that the rate at which the green lines from the die on the left converge with each other, and the rate at which the green lines from the die on the right converge with each other - those two convergence rates are going to be different.

How do I make the green lines from the two different die converge properly with respect to the two dice? Your assumption is correct :thumbsup:. Now how to do it is fairly easy: you choose one VL and force the others to follow. Which one to choose? by judging how it "looks nice". And there is more than one solution.
Here is an example (my lines all in black).
Additionally I corrected two other - and in fact more serious - issues:
-- not enough "foreshortening", the top plane looked more a rectangle than a square. NO mathematics here, only "a good eye" :).
-- the "red" VP of the left dice is too near to look good, it must converge less.


Very well done so far :thumbsup:.

11-02-2014, 09:24 PM
Good job, Michael.
Your assumption is correct :thumbsup:. Now how to do it is fairly easy: you choose one VL and force the others to follow. Which one to choose? by judging how it "looks nice". And there is more than one solution.
Here is an example (my lines all in black).
Additionally I corrected two other - and in fact more serious - issues:
-- not enough "foreshortening", the top plane looked more a rectangle than a square. NO mathematics here, only "a good eye".
-- the "red" VP of the left dice is too near to look good, it must converge less.

Very well done so far :thumbsup:.
Your explanation helps me to see that, shorter VLs have faster convergence.

i.e. As the right die is rotated say, clockwise, its right-most VP moves away from center. This causes the right-pointing VLs to get longer, and the VLs to converge more slowly. At the same time, its left-side VP moves toward center causing the left-pointing VLs to get shorter, making them converge faster.

So when drawing the left-pointing VLs of two dice sitting next to each other, the die that is rotated more clockwise will have shorter, faster converging, left-pointing VLs.

11-02-2014, 10:56 PM
Attempt number 3 at the dice, and an attempt at the building in the lesson plan. The dice are surely difficult, and the building isn't that easy. I am not sure how to draw white trees on a white paper. I guess I should draw everything that isn't a tree...foreign concept to my engineer's brain!



11-03-2014, 08:47 AM
Looks good, Michael :clap:.
I am not sure how to draw white trees on a white paper. This class concentrates on recognizing the cubic forms, so drawing the building is the essence for now. Besides, as a general principle, you don't draw some detail just "because it is there" (a dustbin in a streetview for instance :))
Specifically on drawing white, in comics and other forms of illustration where outlines are customary there is no problem. For realistic drawing, observe how a large completely white shape is what you know, not what you see. There are a lot of shadows and reflections of neighbouring objects.

12-17-2014, 10:32 AM
http://www.wetcanvas.com/Community/images/17-Dec-2014/1965070-31.jpg http://www.wetcanvas.com/Community/images/17-Dec-2014/1965070-32.jpg

12-18-2014, 07:11 AM
I feel that i am improving the hatching technique. I just wonder if i am on a right track. :confused: Sorry for the transparent cubic forms they are on the other side of the paper.

12-18-2014, 05:37 PM
Good job, Stoian :clap:. You're on the right track.
You can go much darker ! :evil:

But I think you missed the "lesson plans" of classes 3 through 6. The purpose is to develop the ability to recognize - and reproduce - the basic 3D forms (cube, cylinder, sphere, cone) in objects around you. Not the drawing from imagination of geometric forms, although that is a commendable practice, and I'd advice you to continue that exercise.

Some reference pictures are given in the first posts, but it is definitely better to draw from real life :thumbsup:.

12-19-2014, 08:40 AM

12-19-2014, 03:45 PM
Very well done, Stoian :clap:.
Correct perspective, and the shading is becoming better and better.
Please move on to class 4 :thumbsup:.

12-28-2014, 12:59 PM
If anyone tells you that drawing two dice is easy. What ever you do, DO NOT believe them. It has taken me around three days and lots of eraser and plenty of paper trying to get those awkward angles. No way am I ready to loose my eraser. I know that the edges are sharp and not rounded but I have had enough of dice. http://www.wetcanvas.com/Community/images/28-Dec-2014/93964-Basic_101_Class_3_-_Drawing_Cubic_Objects_Dice.jpg

I thought that drawing would be easier. Well I was wrong. The wall seemed better than the dice but the clock was not so easy. Masses of problems, first sketched out the basic cubes but I am not too good at proportions. The glass was somewhat confusing until I realised that it was a square glass. Again lots of redrawing. I now realise why I must get myself a light box. As standing up against a window and copying these drawing is uncomfortable. I wonder what my neighbours though of me.

12-28-2014, 04:14 PM
As yet have not found a way of posting scans in landscape. sorry for the above.

12-29-2014, 03:49 PM
Very good job, Tony :clap:.
Painfully copying the distortion of a amateurish photograph is a very good technical exercise, but it is far better for your artistic insight to work from life, looking for the basic forms in objects around you. I'd advise you to keep that in mind in the next classes. The references are a kind of plan B :lol:.
You did very well, please move on to class 4 :thumbsup:.
As yet have not found a way of posting scans in landscape. sorry for the above. Modern Operating Systems use the orientation flag in the EXIF (=metadata) field of jpeg images to know how to display. For others - like here - you need to physically rotate the pixels before uploading. For instance on the Mac see here (http://superuser.com/questions/801570/how-can-i-rotate-an-image-easily-on-mac-os-x). !: read down to "when saving..."


01-04-2015, 09:28 PM
I changed the angles of the left hand cube so that the vp fitted within my piece of paper. I don't think I've changed the image too much by doing this.


01-05-2015, 03:25 AM
Very well done, Justine :clap:.
You've a good grasp of perspective :thumbsup:.
I'd advise for the next exercise in this class (and in next classes as well) to draw from real life. Photos are easier to check the correctness but you learn better to recognize the big shapes, the basic forms, from RL.

Keep up the good work :wave:.

01-06-2015, 04:59 AM
These are my assignments:


A preliminary sketch:


Then the final one after a step in the middle to correct perspective. (Hopefully)


01-06-2015, 03:17 PM
Amy - You're off to a good start :thumbsup:.
The horizon line IS EXACTLY the eye level. So for a building, the natural HL will be somewhat at the level of the door i.e. height of a person. Your background defines the HL a lot higher. No problem, you've put your observer on a hill :). But the perspective must be consistent, you cannot have 3 different VP's in the same set of parallel lines.


On the dice: the perspective is mathematically correct, but they don't really look as cubes, they are too deep. Not enough "foreshortening". That is a very very common error :).
There is no point in trying to correct the existing drawings, I'd suggest to make another drawing from real life. Look for "cubic" forms around you.


01-07-2015, 01:31 AM
Hello Arnoud,

I looked out my window and saw cuboids all around me in the local houses (I'm above looking down on them).

I chose a near one, that looked manageable.

I was wrong.

I've included my quick simple sketch, but when I came to correcting the perspective, my knickers definitely got in a twist!

Until I took a photo and then drew the lines I couldn't decide whether the vanishing points for the roof of the main house was heading to the left or the right. I automatically thought to the left and away from me, but then talked myself into to the right and well past where I was standing. I also automatically thought the small roof would have it's vanishing point away from me and above the main house, but my sketch indicates towards me and down!

Looking at the sketch I can immediately see that the front of the small building doesn't match the direction of the main building, so that is an obvious error.

All these issues I thought would be addressed once I started to correct to perspective.

How do I take a rough sketch, and other than shrinking it to extremely tiny sort out the vanishing points without adding 4 or more blank sheets of paper just to draw the lines on? And at first they go wildly everywhere.

I have attempted to size up the house height to a height on the pencil and then see how far above the house my eye level is (by holding a ruler out straight in front until it disappears). To then gauge the rough dimensions of house to eye level for sizing on the paper or how many pieces to add.

This is all getting quite complicated - I feel there's an easier way.

How do I draw an object to fill a piece of paper to a decent size and still get the perspective correct?

How when I've got a sketch with vanishing points going all over the shop do I choose a realistic eye level and vanishing points?

I've also included a finished sketch of a power board. This is correct from perspective but looks wrong. I also had the original sketch with lines going everywhere, and to get the eye level at a decent height above the object compared to the size of the object I had to scrunch right down in my chair (I couldn't raise the object). Again this isn't ideal, I desire to draw what I see from the comfort of any position!!!

Many thanks for getting to the bottom of this 'quick' post!


01-07-2015, 02:35 AM
This sketch boosted my confidence after the house issues!

Unfortunately I knocked the glass off the shelf so I couldn't draw that this week.

I also had a floating clock in my rough sketch once I'd corrected for perspective, so I grounded it by continuing the base until it reached the shelf.

But I was able to shorten this by moving my rough sketch up and down when creating my finished drawing.

Many thanks, Justine

01-07-2015, 03:28 PM
Justine - Good job :clap:.
The house is a good illustration of what you should learn in this class. See the big shape, in this case the cuboid forms. If you visualized the two cuboids, as a kid playing with building blocks - the old-fashioned ones, not Lego :lol: - before thinking about details, the error in the front wall would have been spotted immediately. Looking for cuboids is not only for the obvious, but also for cuboid "containers" that help you to strike the correct form. An simple example is a table - nothing more than a cube with big holes. But for instance a roof, you can "cut away" afterwards, but there is no doubt about which VP to follow, the same as the corresponding walls.


If the VP's are far away, the convergence is very slight and you can - at least with some experience - safely "eyeball" it.

I've also included a finished sketch of a power board. This is correct from perspective but looks wrong Yes, perspective is just a mathematical formula, you can construct the most bizarre drawings with it (think Escher :)). Your choice of the VP's is not correct: far too near together. A telltale sign is the nearest bottom corner which is too sharp: that corner can never be sharper than 90 °.

All in all you did very well in this class, please move on to class 4 :thumbsup:.

01-07-2015, 09:41 PM
Thanks for the feedback Arnoud,

I took a photo of the power board, and realised that even though I know it's going away from me on the desk, I was parallel to it when I sketched and took the photo. So I altered the angles to what I thought I saw!

When you talk about the bottom corner can't be less than 90°, what do you mean?

When it's flat on to you then the corner is 90 (front face horizontal and front face vertical), when it's angled towards you more you start to see the side, are you then measuring the angle between the side and front horizontals (i.e. the overall flat 2D corner angle), and if you turn that corner away from you the angle between the front horizontal and front vertical are larger than 90.

Hence I should have spotted earlier that if I couldn't see the side of the object that the angle of the main horizontal and vertical had to be at least 90...

It took a lot of moving the object around to (possibly) understand this.

Many thanks, Justine

01-08-2015, 02:37 AM
I'm really struggling with cubes for some reason. I'm hoping these drawings are a bit better.



The paper got a bit wrinkled. Sorry about that.

01-08-2015, 08:56 AM
When you talk about the bottom corner can't be less than 90°, what do you mean?
We were discussing perspective, perspective is about horizontal lines :).
Here is another example, with the suggested correction:


In a complete drawing the error is kind of hidden if you're obsessed with the construction of VL's, but look at the bottom plane of a cube, that should look like a square in perspective, right ?

Which one is correct ?

See you in next class :wave:.

01-08-2015, 08:59 AM
Well done, Amy :clap:.
Please move on to class 4 :thumbsup:.

02-13-2015, 12:48 PM
here is my assignment.
I used what I learned from lecture 1 with this class exercise and the result is very good.It was really fun.

02-13-2015, 04:52 PM
Nice :clap:.

02-14-2015, 12:55 PM
thanks arnoud3272
here is my another drawing for this class.


so should I move to class 4.

02-14-2015, 04:40 PM
Really well done, Ali :clap:.
Please move on to class 4 :thumbsup:.

02-14-2015, 10:04 PM


02-15-2015, 04:54 PM
Very well done, Matt :clap::clap:.
A little "trick": to find the centre of a rectangle in perspective is not different from the method used straight on: draw two diagonals, where they cross is the centre.


Good job, please move on to class 4 :thumbsup:.

02-15-2015, 09:50 PM
Very well done, Matt :clap::clap:.
A little "trick": to find the centre of a rectangle in perspective is not different from the method used straight on: draw two diagonals, where they cross is the centre.

Thanks, that's a good tip!

02-16-2015, 10:03 AM
Class Three Drawing Cubed Objects
Please show corrections 4 Attempts at No2 Really had to think ...hope this is correct!!!! Thank you Mikehttp://www.wetcanvas.com/Community/images/16-Feb-2015/1772578-m_IMG_0001.jpg

02-16-2015, 04:07 PM
Hi, Mike :).
Some general advice to start:
1. except when instructed specifically - as for instance in class 7 -, copying the reference photos is "plan B" in my book. "Plan A" is looking for objects in your environment that correspond to the subject of the class and draw from real life. Choose some simple building.

2. draw larger. Not just because it is easier for me to see the errors, but this scribbling hampers your development. You will progress faster if you draw large and free - underhand position remember ? for the general outlines.

Then - when I said "draw first, then measure" I didn't mean to finish your drawing first :evil:. Draw the outlines, check and correct before adding details and shading.

I traced the outlines of your wall with clock. Then tried some VL's (in cyan) and by good luck they came nicely together. I then checked the other grout lines. Most were good enough - I did not save them to leave the picture uncluttered. One (red) is completely off. That one should be corrected before continuing with the details.
But what really bothers me is that your VP is so much farther away :evil:.

For the silo: All these edges of the front wall (highlighted in red) do not recede, and so they stay parallel. So leave them alone, don't clutter your sketch with unnecessary lines.
This is a traditional western building and we may assume that the side wall is at a right angle to the front wall. Which means that the side wall does recede and the parallel lines on it must converge to a point on the horizon line. I don't see that.


Buildings are an important element in landscapes, I think you'd better make a few more exercises in this class, it will definitely help your later work :thumbsup:.

02-17-2015, 08:04 AM
Repeat Exercise...........Class3http://www.wetcanvas.com/Community/images/17-Feb-2015/1772578-m_IMG_0001.jpg

02-17-2015, 08:06 AM

02-17-2015, 03:03 PM
You're off to a good start, Mike :clap:.
There are some obvious errors in it, and by obvious I mean people can see them just by looking and by comparing with the reference. Really an issue of drawing what you see - well, should see. You don't need vanishing lines to see it, but to demonstrate how VL's are a very powerful tool to check your drawing I want you to draw VL's for the encircled regions. As a matter of fact, you should have done so before starting on the details.



With these "scaffolding" lines it will become clear where you drew an edge in the wrong direction :).
Keep up the good work :thumbsup:.

Edit: I see you are still drawing from photos. Trust me, you learn much faster by working from life.

02-18-2015, 03:10 AM
Good Morning Arnoud.............
I understand that we have a Horizontal line or Eye line in the Distance
and that the VP is where al the appropriate lines should meet....diagonally or straight and that such lines help us to control our drawings correctly

Please find my VP lines as requested my apoligies for photo 2 but my own drawing was to close to the edge of the pad

Await yourhttp://www.wetcanvas.com/Community/images/18-Feb-2015/1772578-m_IMG_0001.jpg critic comments or help Mike

02-18-2015, 03:12 AM

02-18-2015, 03:19 AM

02-18-2015, 07:59 AM
Right :thumbsup:. Well done, Mike :clap:.
Please move on to class 4 :music:.

02-18-2015, 08:28 AM
Many thanks Arnoud.....Im starting a small project so I,ll see you in class 4
very shortly......Class 4 YES :lol: :clap: :thumbsup:

03-15-2015, 06:58 PM
http://www.wetcanvas.com/Community/images/15-Mar-2015/1892689-Dice_3pp.jpg http://www.wetcanvas.com/Community/images/15-Mar-2015/1892689-Dice.jpg http://www.wetcanvas.com/Community/images/15-Mar-2015/1892689-Brick_Mantle.jpg First I attempted the dice with 3 point perspective, "birds' eye" view. I did not like the look as they appeared very skewed; I tried several different angles but didn't care for the appearance. (I have attached one of the sketches). Then I drew them using two VPs for each die. I also drew the brick shelf with the clock. I couldn't find the PDF link for this lesson so I had a hard time with the small picture to make out the details of the clock and candle. I thought the candle might be round inside at the bottom but I just drew it more cube-shaped. I thought about drawing something from real life but I had already started on the shelf. Looking forward to critique, thanks!

03-16-2015, 03:05 PM
But why not follow me and doing it on the computer ? If you need photo-manipulation software, Gimp is completely free :thumbsup:. The latest version for Windows is here (http://gimp-win.sourceforge.net/stable.html). It has a steeper learning curve than (expensive) Photoshop, but you need only a few functionalities, and a very extensive tutorial can be found here (http://gimp-savvy.com/BOOK/index.html).

You know arnould I downloaded Gimp and the tutorial but I have absolutely no idea of which tool would provide me assistance with drawing the VPs on top of my file? :confused:

03-16-2015, 05:54 PM
DivotDiva - Very well done :clap:. I like your illustrative style - outlines with a suggestion of shading.

3PP is a camera distortion anyway. Up to the 1960's professional photographers carefully avoided it - with special technical means on their expensive cameras. The reason it looked very skewed, at least for the example you uploaded, is that the two vp's on the EL are too close together. You would have an unpleasant effect in 2PP as well. Additionally in 3PP the 3td VP should be central.

I have absolutely no idea of which tool would provide me assistance with drawing the VPs on top of my file? :confused: OK, in telegram style:
Image -> Canvas Size: to make room
[if necessary to have a good overview, down size the image first (Image -> Scale Image)]
Layer -> New Layer (fill type: Transparency)
Tools -> Pencil - or Brush choose appropriate size and color
Draw straight lines: click on starting point, Shift-click on end point

The reason for working on a separate layer is that you can erase and retry as much as you like. The original scan is not disturbed.

You did very well in this class, please move on to class 4 :thumbsup:.

03-16-2015, 06:34 PM
DivotDiva - Very well done :clap:. I like your illustrative style - outlines with a suggestion of shading.

Additionally in 3PP the 3td VP should be central.

The reason for working on a separate layer is that you can erase and retry as much as you like. The original scan is not disturbed.

You did very well in this class, please move on to class 4 :thumbsup:.

thanks, I will try that in GIMP. I figured it must be a layer but I didn't know when to start. and Ah yes I forgot that the 3rd point on 3PP should be in the middle of the drawing. No wonder I didn't like it. I recall having to do several 3PP exercises in school many years ago, drawing high rise buildings.

As for my "style" ...thanks, -- now I know what to call it! Hoping to improve! :crossfingers:

03-30-2015, 11:02 AM
hello.My exercises for class3

03-30-2015, 05:33 PM
sapf -
Good job :clap:.
When copying 2D works, it is important to use your knowledge of the real world to guide your interpretation. That is why it is much better for your development to draw from real life. The "antique" silo: we see two walls and that one corner. The right wall clearly turns away from us (right edge further away), so, because the corner is 90 ° - we may safely assume - the left wall turns away from us as well (left edge further away), NOT towards us. As you drew it :( (red VL's). And how a builder could construct the corner highlighted in blue, is a complete riddle for me :lol:.


Please move on to class 4 :thumbsup:.

04-06-2015, 12:40 PM

Here is a grain elevator I found a picture of online. I think I corrected all the perspective errors from the photo.




04-06-2015, 05:25 PM
This is very well done, Matt :clap::clap:.
One point, outside the scope of this class, but anyway:
the letters seem to lean forward :(. In traditional perspective, particularly in architectural drawings, vertical lines are kept strictly vertical. There is a "trick" to apply perspective deformation to a text - well, as a matter of fact, any deformation to any form. It is copying by modified gridding, normal source grid, distorted target grid.


You've no problems with the subject of this class, please move on to class 4 :thumbsup:.

04-06-2015, 05:57 PM
This is very well done, Matt :clap::clap:.
One point, outside the scope of this class, but anyway:
the letters seem to lean forward

Thanks! I wasn't originally planning on drawing the letters and then added them at the last minute, I'm not too happy with how they turned out. Thanks for the trick, it will definitely come in handy in the future.

Here's another one of a fire lookout tower that I also drew for the lesson:



04-07-2015, 02:53 AM

04-17-2015, 05:11 PM
I did the first lot of cubes awhile ago then I did the dice two to three days ago, I hope they are ok.



04-18-2015, 05:58 PM
Perfect :clap::clap:.

04-21-2015, 05:00 PM
I have drawn these dice over and over and they are still not correct. Any suggestions??? Thanks for your continued support.



04-22-2015, 08:07 AM
Kathy -
Any suggestions??? What about "Further away looks smaller" for a start ?


Instead, on some faces you drew farther away even larger :(.
BTW that is why it is better to draw from real life, then you will clearly know what is nearer and what is farther.

04-22-2015, 10:21 AM
Thanks! Should I try the dice again or go find some outside cubes to draw?
Thanks again, Kathy

04-22-2015, 05:26 PM
Thanks! Should I try the dice again or go find some outside cubes to draw?
Thanks again, Kathy
Yes, try some other objects :thumbsup:.

04-24-2015, 09:58 AM
Argh who thought drawing simple cubes would be so difficult, especially after finding it a breeze in lesson 2?!?! I tried my hand at a few of the provided pics, then after multiple failed attempts I decided to focus on the dice.
It took me forever and I'm still not happy with the shape of the front dice. Although this exercise was built on identifying cubic forms I couldn't help but find myself caring more about the perspective than the actual cube form. It seems once I got my sketch layed out and then worked the perspective the form would be a bit distorted.

I also seem to have difficulty drawing on a larger scale when it comes to perspective. Deciding to scale the drawing down helped a lot and once I got the eye line down it made it a little easier but wow.

I hope this suffices, I'm off to find more cubes to draw in my sketchbook!


04-24-2015, 06:00 PM

Here is my next cube sketch. An old brick building in Australia with the classic corrugated iron tin roof.

I find it easy to locate cubes, but feel that using the ruler to map every perspective line a bit clunky. And by sticking strictly to the perspective rules, I found that I missed other placement cues that I should have noticed. For example, the window on the right under the awning should have been a lot wider, but because I was focusing on making the perspective work, I missed the clue about placing it in relation to the chimney. However, I think overall this drawing works. What do you think?



04-24-2015, 06:03 PM
And sorry, have just realised that this photo is fairly poor quality. Might look into getting a cheap scanner.

04-25-2015, 12:52 PM
Oops, forgot that the chimney is also a tiny cube. Will fix it on the original.

04-25-2015, 05:09 PM
Lee - Good job, :clap:, despite your apprehension.
A basic knowledge of perspective is necessary to avoid glaring mistakes, but don't become a slave of it. How accurate (mathematically speaking) it should be depends also on the style. Architectural drawings ("artist's impressions") are expected to be in strict perspective, but in more "picturesque" landscape drawings, it would look stiff.
Keep up the good work :thumbsup:.

04-25-2015, 05:11 PM
Shelly - Very well done :clap:.
I think you're ready to move on to class 4 :thumbsup:.

04-25-2015, 07:29 PM
That's great Arnoud, thanks, see you in class 4. :wave:

04-26-2015, 08:09 PM
Hello Arnoud,

I've been out of town at a convention and can see cubes popping up every where. I also finally located a library that had Gene Franks books. The bad news is my cubic forms are way to pitiful to post. I'll keep working on them.

Thanks for your support!


04-27-2015, 05:02 PM

04-30-2015, 05:01 PM
A pair of dice. I drew them fast and loose, experimenting with different hand positions. If I had a kneaded eraser I would have lightened up the top and right sides to create a greater differential from the shaded face...


04-30-2015, 05:27 PM
Sorry sharp, you made the same basic error as in class 2.
So please finish class 2 first.

05-02-2015, 12:39 AM
Well, here is my best cubic form. :o http://www.wetcanvas.com/Community/images/02-May-2015/1970295-image.jpg

It is a house with the door set back but I could not figure out how to show that . The straight lines on either side of the door should be round columns.

Thanks for your help. I think I did manage "further away is smaller".


05-02-2015, 08:13 AM
Looks good, Kathy :clap:.
The slanting corners bother me, I assume that you drew them vertically ?

This is the typical deformation that you get if you tilt the camera/smartphone with respect to the plane of the drawing.


Another point to consider is the choice of the eye level. The EL is the level where the imagined observer in the picture has his eyes. That is in normal circumstances not at the level of the gutters :lol:.
As for the columns, cylinders are in next class. And you're ready for next class, please move on :thumbsup:.

05-02-2015, 09:25 PM
Here is another shot at the dice. They are actually 3 point perspective so it's a little tougher!


05-03-2015, 05:46 AM
Very well done, sharp :clap:.

05-12-2015, 07:58 AM
These are mine dice ( My own dice, one is realy smaller) and a lighthouse, it's the lighthouse of the Dutch island Terschelling. Hope these have the correct cubic form :),
Thanks for all the helpfull lessons and help!

05-12-2015, 03:44 PM
Well done, Ivonne :clap:.
Please move on to class 4 :thumbsup:.

05-17-2015, 12:04 PM
Sorry for the disappearing act the last few weeks, just started a new job so haven't been able to do as much drawing as I'd have liked.

What time I did have spare was spent working on the below image of the mantle piece and clock. Tried to mainly focus on the image itself by identifying the cube forms and not get too hung up on perspective.


05-17-2015, 04:11 PM
Well done, Lee :clap:.
One remark though, before I could appreciate what you did, I had to post-process the picture, it was unreadable as posted. I did nothing fancy, just playing a bit with the Brightness and Contrast sliders.



05-17-2015, 04:52 PM
Thanks Arnoud, yeah I should really start editing my images after scanning just to make them darker. Something I'll do in future :)

06-02-2015, 02:33 PM
After reviewing the info and exercises for class I was driving around doing errands and came to the realization that most buildings are a combination of one or more cubes. One of my biggest challenges is getting buildings right. It seems if I simplify them into their cubic components then establish eye level and vps I should be able to render them more realistically. I am pretty sure I get establishment of eye level/hl ( by placing a ruler in front of eyes) but vp is trickier since the vp can be way outside of the picture plane. I have tried estimating the angle(s) of one the receding side(s) for each vp and then proceeding from there. Does this make sense as an approach?

06-02-2015, 03:19 PM
Norma -
I'm a bit confused, this question belongs to class 2, perspective. After finishing class 2 I think you'll know the answer yourself :thumbsup:.
BTW, you did very well in class 1, so please move on to class 2 :music:.

06-08-2015, 10:22 AM
Here are my class 3 assignments. The clock on the mantle was difficult because one of vps was waaay outside the picture plane. It was hard to get the angles right.


06-08-2015, 05:23 PM
Well done, Norma :clap:
The dice are correctly drawn, geometrically speaking. The perspective was correctly constructed. But it shows that it was constructed, the front bottom angles are too sharp to be realistic. For ease of construction, the distance between the VP's was chosen too short.
There are several tricks to cope with VP's outside the paper:
-- paste a another piece of paper alongside
-- (on a drawing board) with a pin and a piece of string. (On more than half the paintings by Vermeer there is little pin hole at the VP.)
-- 21th century: digitally with a photoshop lookalike. (for this class, the drawing is scanned or photographed anyway)
That reminds me to stress that the best way to learn is to draw first ("freehand" perspective :lol:), then check by constructing the VL's.

Please move on to class 4 :thumbsup:.

07-30-2015, 09:58 AM
Hi Arnoud,

Here is one of my cubic object...It was really interesting to draw. I thought it would be difficult to draw but once i broke down the camera into cubes, it was easy and enjoyable to draw...it's not perfected yet. I'm starting to enjoy drawing more cubic forms...I even used a cube to position the lens in relation to the body...cool stuff!



Have a great day!

07-30-2015, 05:29 PM
Good job, Josee :clap:.
I even used a cube to position the lens in relation to the body...cool stuff!:thumbsup: