View Full Version : Masters of Pastels-May 2005

A Few Pigments
05-02-2005, 02:31 PM
Edouard Manet, 1832-1883.
French Realist: http://www.artcyclopedia.com/history/realism.html /Impressionist Painter http://www.artcyclopedia.com/history/impressionism.html


1875, The Artist, 192.09 x 127.95 cm, 75.62 x 50.37 in., oil on canvas: http://www.the-athenaeum.org/art/display_image.php?id=30055


1878, Self Portrait with Palette, 82.87 x 66.99 cm, 32.63 x 26.38 in., oil on canvas: http://www.the-athenaeum.org/art/detail.php?ID=9916


1878-1879, Self Portrait with Skull-Cap, oil on canvas: http://www.the-athenaeum.org/art/detail.php?ID=9919


Édouard Manet http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edouard_Manet
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Édouard Manet (January 23, 1832 – April 30, 1883) was a French painter. One of the first 19th century artists to approach modern-life subjects, his art bridged the gap between realism and impressionism.

Édouard Manet was born in Paris, France, His mother, Eugénie-Desirée Fournier, was the goddaughter of a Swedish prince, and his father, Auguste Manet, was a French judge. His father wanted him to also pursue a career in law, but he wanted a career in the arts. His uncle, Charles Fournier, encouraged him to pursue painting and often took young Manet at the Louvre.

From 1850 to 1856, after failing the examination to join the navy, Manet studied under academic painter Thomas Couture. In his spare time he copied the old masters in the Louvre. He visited Germany, Italy and the Netherlands, during which time he absorbed the influences of the Dutch painter Frans Hals, and the Spanish artists Diego Velázquez and Francisco José de Goya.

Manet, in imitation of the current style of realism initiated by Gustave Courbet, painted everyday subjects like beggars, cafés, bullfights, and other events and scenery. He produced very few religious, mythological, or historical paintings.

One of Manet's best known early paintings is Le déjeuner sur l'herbe (The Luncheon on the Grass). The Paris Salon refused to exhibit it in 1863 but he exhibited it at the Salon des Refusés later in the year. Its juxtaposition of dressed men and a nude women was controversial, as was its abbreviated sketch-like style — an innovation that distinguished Manet from Courbet. However, Manet's composition is derived from Marcantonio Raimondi's engraving The Judgment of Paris (c. 1510) after a drawing by Raphael. Manet took respected works by Renaissance artists and updated them, a practice he also adopted in Olympia (1863), a nude portrayed in a style reminiscent of the early studio photographs, but which was based on Titian's Venus of Urbino (1538).

The roughly painted style and photographic lighting in these works was seen as specifically modern, and as a challenge to the Renaissance works Manet updated. His work is considered early modern because of its black outlining of figures that draws attention to the surface of the picture plane and the materiality of paint.

Manet consistently believed that modern artists should seek to exhibit at the Paris Salon rather than abandon it. He became friends with the impressionists Edgar Degas, Claude Monet, Pierre-Auguste Renoir, Alfred Sisley, Paul Cézanne, and Camille Pissarro in part through his sister-in-law Berthe Morisot, who was a member of the group. His own work influenced and anticipated the impressionist style. However, Manet resisted involvement in impressionist exhibitions, partly because he did not wish to be seen as the representative of a group identity, and partly because of his disapproval of their opposition to the salon system. Nevertheless, when Manet was excluded from the International exhibition of 1867, he set up his own exhibition.

However, he was influenced by the impressionists, especially by Monet, and to an extent Morisot. Their impact of is seen in Manet's use lighter colors, but he retained his distinctive use of blocks of black, uncharacteristic of impressionist painting. He painted many plein air (outdoor) pieces, but always returned to what he considered serious work in the studio.
Throughout his life, though resisted by art critics, Manet had many champions. Émile Zola supported him publicly in the press, and Stéphane Mallarmé, as well as Charles Baudelaire, who had challenged him to depict life as it was. Manet, in turn, made many sketchings of them.

1881, with pressure from his friend Antonin Proust, the French government awarded Manet the Legion of Honor.
He painted his last major work, Le Bar aux Folies-Bergère (A Bar at the Folies-Bergère), in 1881-2 and it hung in the Salon that year.
Manet died of untreated syphilis, which caused much pain and partial paralysis from locomotor ataxia in his later years. His left foot was amputated because of gangrene 11 days before he died.

He died in Paris in 1883 and is buried in the Cimetière de Passy, Paris, France.

In recent years, the price for his works exceeded US$26 million.

Edouard Manet, 1832-1883. Biography Resource Center: http://www.biography.com/impressionists/artists_manet.html
Born January 23, 1832 in Paris, France, to Auguste Édouard Manet, an official at the Ministry of Justice, and Eugénie Désirée Manet. Manet's father, who had expected his son to study law, vigorously opposed his wish to become a painter. The career of naval officer was decided upon as a compromise, and at the age of 16 Édouard sailed to Rio de Janeiro on a training vessel. Upon his return he failed to pass the entrance examination of the naval academy. His father relented, and in 1850 Manet entered the studio of Thomas Couture, where, in spite of many disagreements with his teacher, he remained until 1856. During this period, Manet traveled abroad and made numerous copies after the Old Masters in both foreign and French public collections.

Early Works
Manet's entry for the Salon of 1859, The Absinthe Drinker, a thematically romantic but conceptually daring work, was rejected. At the Salon of 1861, his Spanish Singer, one of a number of works of Spanish character painted in this period, not only was admitted to the Salon but won an honorable mention and the acclaim of the poet Théophile Gautier. This was to be Manet's last success for many years.

In 1863, Manet married Suzanne Leenhoff, a Dutch pianist. That year he showed 14 paintings at the Martinet Gallery; one of them, Music in the Tuileries, remarkable for its freshness in the handling of a contemporary scene, was greeted with considerable hostility. Also in 1863, the Salon rejected Manet's large painting Le Déjeuner sur l'herbe, or Luncheon on the Grass, and the artist elected to have it shown at the now famous Salon des Refusés, created by the emperor under the pressure of the exceptionally large number of painters whose work had been turned away. Here, Manet's picture attracted the most attention and brought forth a kind of abusive criticism that was to set a pattern for years to come.

In 1865, Manet's Olympia produced a still more violent reaction at the official Salon, and his reputation as a renegade became widespread. Upset by the criticism, Manet made a brief trip to Spain, where he admired many works by Diego Velázquez, to whom he referred as "the painter of painters."

Support of Baudelaire and Zola
Manet's close friend and supporter during the early years was Charles Baudelaire, who, in 1862, had written a quatrain to accompany one of Manet's Spanish subjects, Lola de Valence, and the public, largely as a result of the strange atmosphere of the Olympia, linked the two men readily. In 1866, after the Salon jury had rejected two of Manet's works, Émile Zola came to his defense with a series of articles filled with strongly expressed, uncompromising praise. In 1867, he published a book which contains the prediction, "Manet's place is destined to be in the Louvre." This book appears on Zola's desk in Manet's portrait of the writer (1868). In May of that year, the Paris World's Fair opened its doors, and Manet, at his own expense, exhibited 50 of his works in a temporary structure, not far from Gustave Courbet's private exhibition. This was in keeping with Manet's view, expressed years later to his friend Antonin Proust, that his paintings must be seen together in order to be fully understood

Although Manet insisted that a painter be "resolutely of his own time" and that he paint what he sees, he nevertheless produced two important religious works, Dead Christ with Angels and Christ Mocked by the Soldiers, which were shown at the Salons of 1864 and 1865, respectively, and ridiculed. Only Zola could defend the former work on the grounds of its vigorous realism while playing down its alleged lack of piety. It is also true that although Manet despised the academic category of "history painting" he did paint the contemporary Naval Battle between the Kearsarge and the Alabama (1864) and The Execution of Emperor Maximilian of Mexico (1867). The latter is based upon a careful gathering of the facts surrounding the incident and composed, largely, after Francisco Goya's Executions of the Third of May, resulting in a curious amalgam of the particular and the universal. Manet's use of older works of art in elaborating his own major compositions has long been, and continues to be, a problematic subject, since the old view that this procedure was needed to compensate for the artist's own inadequate imagination is rapidly being discarded.

Late Works
Although Manet influenced the Impressionists during the 1860s, during the next decade it appears that it was he who learned from them. His palette became lighter; his stroke, without ever achieving the analytical intensity of Claude Monet's, was shorter and more rapid. Nevertheless, Manet never cultivated plein-airism seriously, and he remained essentially a figure and studio painter. Also, despite his sympathy for most of the Impressionists with whom the public associated him, he never exhibited with them at their series of private exhibitions, which began in 1874. He was particularly close to the female Impressionist Berthe Morisot, whom he met in 1868. Manet was a great influence on Morisot, and she in turn helped him accept some of the tenets of Impressionism to greater effect in his work; she also posed for him numerous times, notably for The Balcony (1869) and Repose (c. 1870). In 1874, Morisot married Manet's younger brother, Eugéne, also a painter.
Manet had his first resounding success since The Spanish Singer at the Salon of 1873 with his Bon Bock, which radiates a touch and joviality of expression reminiscent of Frans Hals, in contrast to Manet's usually austere figures. In spite of the popularity of this painting, his success was not to extend to the following season. About this time he met the poet Stéphane Mallarmé, with whom he remained on intimate terms for the remainder of his life. After Manet's rejection by the jury in 1876, Mallarmé took up his defense.
Toward the end of the 1870s, although Manet retained the bright palette and the touch of his Impressionist works, he returned to the figure problems of the early years. The undeniable sense of mystery is found again in several bar scenes, notably the Brasserie Reichshoffen, in which the relationships of the figures recall those of Luncheon on the Grass. Perhaps the apotheosis of his lifelong endeavors is to be found in his last major work, A Bar at the Folies-Bergère (1881-1882) . Here, in the expression of the barmaid, is all the starkness of the great confrontations of the 1860s, but bathed in a profusion of colors. While we are drawn to the brilliantly painted accessories, it is the girl, placed at the center before a mirror, who dominates the composition and ultimately demands our attention. Although her reflected image, showing her to be in conversation with a man, is absorbed into the brilliant atmosphere of the setting, she remains enigmatic and aloof. Manet produced two aspects of the same personality, combined the fleeting with the eternal, and, by "misplacing" the reflected image, took a step toward abstraction as a solution to certain lifelong philosophical and technical problems.
In 1881, Manet was finally admitted to membership in the Legion of Honor, an award he had long coveted. By then he was seriously ill. Therapy at the sanatorium at Bellevue failed to improve his health, and walking became increasingly difficult for him. In his weakened condition he found it easier to handle pastels than oils, and he produced a great many flower pieces and portraits in that medium. In the spring of 1883, his left leg was amputated, but this did not prolong his life. He died peacefully in Paris on April 30.
Manet was short, unusually handsome, and witty. His biographers stress his kindness and unaffected generosity toward his friends. The paradoxical elements in his art are an extension of the man: although a revolutionary in art, he craved official honors; while fashionably dressed, he affected a Parisian slang at odds with his appearance and impeccable manners; and although he espoused the style of life of the conservative classes, his political sentiments were those of the republican liberal.

Tour: Manet and His Influence, National Gallery of Art, Washington D.C.: http://www.nga.gov/collection/gallery/gg90/gg90-main1.html
It is hard to image a time when Paris was without broad, tree-lined streets or when the life of the city did not interest French artists. Yet this was the case in 1850 when Edouard Manet began to study painting. Young artists could expect to succeed only through the official Academy exhibitions known as Salons, whose conservative juries favored biblical and mythological themes and a polished technique. Within twenty-five years, however, both Paris and painting had a new look. Urban renovations had opened the wide avenues and parks we know today, and painting was transformed when artists abandoned the transparent glazes and blended brushtrokes of the past and turned their attention to life around them. Contemporary urban subjects and a bold style, which offered paint on the canvas as something to be admired in itself, gave their art a strong new sense of the present.

More than in his teacher's studio, Manet learned to paint in the Louvre by studying old masters. He was particularly impressed by Velázquez, contrasting his vivid brushwork with the "stews and gravies" of academic style. Manet began to develop a freer manner, creating form not through a gradual blending of tones but with discrete areas of color side by side. He drew on the old masters for structure, often incorporating their motifs but giving them a modern cast.

Several artists had begun to challenge the stale conventions of the Academy when Manet's Olympia (now at the Musée d'Orsay, Paris) was accepted for the Salon in 1865. Never had a work caused such scandal. Critics advised pregnant women to avoid the picture, and it was rehung to thwart vandals. Viewers were not used to the painting's flat space and shallow volumes. To many, Manet's "color patches" appeared unfinished. Even more shocking was the frank honesty of his courtesan: it was her boldness, not her nudity, that offended. Her languid pose copied a Titian Venus, but Manet did not cloak her with mythology. She is not a remote goddess but emphatically in the present, easily recognized among the demimonde of prostitutes and dancehalls. In Olympia's steady gaze there is no apology for sensuality and, for uncomfortable viewers, no escaping her "reality."

Manet's succès de scandale made him a leader of the avant-garde. In the evenings at the Café Guerbois, near his studio, he was joined by writers and artists, including Monet, Bazille, and others who would go on to organize the first impressionist exhibition. Manet's embrace of what the poet Charles Baudelaire termed the "heroism of modern life" and his bold manner with paint inspired the future impressionists, though Manet never exhibited with them.
Events in Manet's Time
1848 Louis Phillipe abdicates; Louis-Napoléon elected President
1851 First edition of The New York Times
1852 Louis-Napoléon proclaims himself Emperor Napoléon III (Second Empire)
1853 Baron Haussmann begins renovations of Paris
1855 Courbet presents Pavilon du Réalisme
1856 A. F. Nadar takes the first aerial photographs from a balloon above Paris
1857 Charles Baudelaire's Les Fleurs du mal
Gustave Flaubert's Madame Bovary
1859 Charles Darwin's On the Origin of Species
1862 Sarah Bernhardt debuts
1863 Emancipation Proclamation
death of Delacroix
Works by Manet and Whistler exhibited at the Salon des Refusés
1864 Louis Pasteur develops the pasteurization process
1866 Jacques Offenbach's La Vie Parisienne
1867 Emperor Maximilian is executed in Mexico
death of Ingres
Japanese art gets wide exposure at the Exposition Universelle
1870 French defeated in the Franco-Prussian War after four-month siege of Paris
death of Bazille
1871 Two-month rule of the Commune ends violently; the Republic restored
Arthur Rimbaud's Une Saison en enfer
1872 Emile Zola's La Curée
1874 First impressionist exhibition

Brother-in-law of Berthe Morisot, French Impressionist Painter, 1841-1895 http://www.artcyclopedia.com/artists/morisot_berthe.html

Manet's students included Eva Gonzales, French Impressionist Painter, 1849-1883: http://www.artcyclopedia.com/artists/gonzales_eva.html

1876-1877, Portrait of Faure as Hamlet, chalk. http://www.the-athenaeum.org/art/detail.php?ID=9907

1878, Young Girl on a Bench pastel on canvas http://www.the-athenaeum.org/art/detail.php?ID=9913

1878-1879, Woman in the Tub 55.25 x 45.09 cm, 21.75 x 17.75 in., pastel on board. http://www.the-athenaeum.org/art/detail.php?ID=14741

circa 1879, Eva Gonzales pastel on paper. http://www.the-athenaeum.org/art/detail.php?ID=9926

1879, On the Bench, 60.96 x 49.85 cm, 24 x 19.63 in., pastel on canvas. http://www.the-athenaeum.org/art/detail.php?ID=14742

1879, Portrait of George Moore, 55.25 x 35.24 cm, 21.75 x 13.88 in., pastel on canvas. http://www.the-athenaeum.org/art/detail.php?ID=14738

1880, Parisienne, Portrait of Madame Jules Guillemet, pastel on canvas. http://www.the-athenaeum.org/art/detail.php?ID=9933

1880, Portrait of the Composer Emmanual Chabrier, pastel on canvas. http://www.the-athenaeum.org/art/detail.php?ID=9935

1880, Young Woman Taking a Walk, Holding an Open Umbrella, 60 x 50 cm, 23.62 x 19.69 in., pastel on canvas. http://www.the-athenaeum.org/art/detail.php?ID=10406

circa 1880-1882, La Viennoise, Portrait of Irma Brunner 53.98 x 45.72 cm, 21.25x 18 in. http://www.the-athenaeum.org/art/detail.php?ID=14752

1882, La Rochenoier, the Painter of Animals, pastel on canvas. http://www.the-athenaeum.org/art/detail.php?ID=9944

1882, Woman in Furs, Portrait of Mery Laurent, 53.98 x 33.97 cm, 21.25 x 13.37 in. pastel on canvas. http://www.the-athenaeum.org/art/detail.php?ID=14751

1882, Young Woman in a Negligee, pastel on canvas. http://www.the-athenaeum.org/art/detail.php?ID=9945

An example of Manets signature. His signature is number 291: http://www.artarchiv.net/doku/sig/38.jpg

Pictures from Image Archives:
Artcyclopedia, the most complete resource for Manet on the web: http://www.artcyclopedia.com/artists/manet_edouard.html

The Athenaeum, 167 works online: http://www.the-athenaeum.org/art/by_artist.php?sort=date_up&id=400

WetCanvas, Edouard Manet: 1832 – 1883, all of the paintings in this article are oil on canvas, http://www.wetcanvas.com/Museum/Artists/m/Edouard_Manet/index.html

Corner of a Café-Concert, Edouard Manet (c1878-80), Jonathan Jones, Saturday September 28, 2002 ,The Guardian http://www.guardian.co.uk/arts/portrait/story/0,11109,800350,00.html

A Bar at the Folies-Bergere, Edouard Manet (1882), Jonathan Jones, Saturday October 21, 2000, The Guardian: http://www.guardian.co.uk/arts/portrait/story/0,11109,739736,00.html

Olympia, Edouard Manet (1863), Jonathan Jones, Saturday April 20, 2002, The Guardian: http://www.guardian.co.uk/arts/portrait/story/0,11109,743682,00.html

05-02-2005, 04:11 PM

I still didn't have time to read all of it and check the links, but sure is valuable info.
Thanks !



A Few Pigments
05-03-2005, 08:32 PM
Hi Bringer,

Thank you, I’m glad you’re enjoying this thread. I’ve provided links to the past threads from this series in case you’d like to see them.

Masters of Pastels-April 2005 Odilon Redon

Masters of Pastels-March 2005 Edwin Austin Abbey

Masters of Pastels-February 2005 Berthe Morisot

Masters of Pastels-January 2005 Mary Stevenson Cassatt

Masters of Pastels – December 2004 Edgar Germain Hilaire Degas

Masters of Pastels-November 2004 Rosalba Giovanna Carriera

12-27-2005, 04:06 PM
I just wanted to say how impressed I was with Manet. I'm a pastel artist still looking for my "style". I'm very self critical and everything I do can always be "better". So, on a self medicated search for enlightenment, I found myself here, surfing the forums. I ran across this particular one, and let me tell you, I'm so inspired by him. I'm going home, finishing my current painting, and redoing it again, in a Manet inspired style. I'm so excited, I can hardly wait!

A Few Pigments
12-28-2005, 08:45 PM
Hi Cecilia,

I’m happy for you that you have found inspiration from Manets work. He had a brilliant, creative mind. I wish you all the luck in the world with your painting and I hope you’ll post your work.