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Ecobrush
11-20-2013, 07:49 AM
What do you think is better? Do you get better results with natural colors? I've heard they are more vibrant and have wider color ranges when compared next to synthetic oil paints. Any advice or opinions on this would be greatly appreciated!

Ecobrush
11-20-2013, 07:50 AM
Does anyone have any natural oil paint brands that i should check out? Must be high quality.

Patrick1
11-20-2013, 09:44 AM
Are you asking about the 'same' pigment from a natural source vs. synthetic? For example Natural vs. Synthetic Raw Sienna? Or are you asking about natural vs. synthetic pigments in general?

I'll let the experts answer, but I think that synthetic pigments are often higher in chroma, lightfastness, and come in a greater range of hues and transparency/opacity. The vast majority of artist pigments nowadays are synthetic.

If you'll be working only with natural pigments, you'll be greatly limiting your pigment and color choices. I doubt this in itself will result in better work, but I can understand the wholesomeness of it, in the same way some people prefer organic foods.

Gigalot
11-20-2013, 09:45 AM
What do you think is better? Do you get better results with natural colors? I've heard they are more vibrant and have wider color ranges when compared next to synthetic oil paints. Any advice or opinions on this would be greatly appreciated!

You can be very disappointed. Natural pigments are (in general) dull, earthy and they have ultra limited color range. I can say that synthetic pigments are much more vibrant. But an unique hue of Natural pigments gives some popularity among some traditionalists artists.

But,to be honest, all synthetic pigments have also an unique hue. :D

sidbledsoe
11-20-2013, 10:06 AM
There is a "romance" associated with old, traditional, "like the masters used only" type of preferences in all materials. Some will even prefer the natural pigments that are sourced from a certain pit somewhere in old Italy or a mine in Afganistan. I have used naturals and synthetic to the hilt and in my opinion, they are both good, they both work ok, and they both give you good results, and good results are not the result of any particular brand or type of paint. I have done some of my very best painting and achieved the "best" results with Daler Rowney Georgian or paint I made myself.

Mythrill
11-20-2013, 11:26 AM
There is a "romance" associated with old, traditional, "like the masters used only" type of preferences in all materials. Some will even prefer the natural pigments that are sourced from a certain pit somewhere in old Italy or a mine in Afganistan. I have used naturals and synthetic to the hilt and in my opinion, they are both good, they both work ok, and they both give you good results, and good results are not the result of any particular brand or type of paint. I have done some of my very best painting and achieved the "best" results with Daler Rowney Georgian or paint I made myself.
I agree. There's indeed some sort of "romance" going on. Natural pigments are usually technically inferior in everything but transparency (because of their lower tinting strength.) However, they do have some unique characteristics, as a very soft hue, and their transparency is usually wonderful for glazing and delicate mixes. Many people suggest using both types if you can, exploring the uniqueness of every pigment you can. I'm very fond of with this view.

Ecobrush
11-20-2013, 11:59 AM
I was just speaking with my old lecturer at London College of Art and he has been using these natural paints called Prima Colore and apparently they don't have the issues of dullness Gigalot mentioned... I am going to try and track them down and see if I can show you guys to see if you know about them.

Mythrill
11-20-2013, 12:55 PM
I was just speaking with my old lecturer at London College of Art and he has been using these natural paints called Prima Colore and apparently they don't have the issues of dullness Gigalot mentioned... I am going to try and track them down and see if I can show you guys to see if you know about them.

Eco, it's possible that those paints were mixed with synthetic iron oxides (very likely if they are artist grade) or with synthetic organic pigments (very likely if they are lower-grade paints.) I made myself Raw Umber, and it's incredibly dull – but a better mixer than Winsor & Newton's counterpart!

Of course, if you get pure rocks and crush them, you'll get a better pigment overall, but it should still be very transparent and have a very low tinting strength compared to synthetic pigments.

Journeyman
11-20-2013, 01:15 PM
Eco, "Prima Colore" is a Brazilian company specialising in natural pigments if you find a distributer in the UK let us know.

:wave: Dave

Ecobrush
11-20-2013, 01:37 PM
Journeyman, thank you for the information turns out you were absolutely right, they are a Brazilian company. I found their UK facebook page and they ship to the UK. I got a primary colour and monochrome set to try them out...

https://www.facebook.com/PrimaColore

If I find anywhere else you can get them from I will post a link for you. Let me know how you get on!

Gigalot
11-20-2013, 02:41 PM
I was just speaking with my old lecturer at London College of Art and he has been using these natural paints called Prima Colore and apparently they don't have the issues of dullness Gigalot mentioned... I am going to try and track them down and see if I can show you guys to see if you know about them.

If they use vegetable organic pigments in their paint formulation, it is better to strongly avoid those paints because vegetable dyes are all ultra-fugitive. If you really like vivid colors, just use modern, petroleum chemical pigments. These pigments are far more lightfast than natural sap counterparts.

Patrick1
11-20-2013, 02:45 PM
Here's a good overview of natural/synthetic and inorganic/organic pigment types:

http://www.handprint.com/HP/WCL/pigmt1.html#pigmenttypes

Ecobrush
11-20-2013, 03:48 PM
@Gigalot, thanks for the input, I will let you know how I get on with the paint when it arrives. From what I can tell what you are saying is normally the case with natural pigments, but my lecturer swears by Prima Colore and says their formulation is what makes them so special. Anyway fingers crossed!

Ecobrush
11-20-2013, 03:49 PM
@Journeyman I also found this link where you can get them as well. Hope you manage to get some and let me know what you make of their colours!

https://www.etsy.com/listing/169741787/primary-colour-pack-of-3-100-natural?ref=pr_shop

Gigalot
11-20-2013, 04:21 PM
Some brands can sell us synthetic lightfast + natural fugitive pigments mixture under the name "rose dore" "madder lake" paint e.t.c. But, anyway, it is better to use normal, trusted and not faked pure synthetic organic pigments for automotive industry.
Or use dull natural earth, earth pigments are absolutely permanent in normal conditions.

Journeyman
11-21-2013, 05:47 AM
Thanks for the links Eco, I’ve had a look but at the moment they are outside of my price range, the three primary colours sell as a set for £24.79 that’s £8.26 for a 25ml tube! Though I do like the fact that the primaries they sell are labelled Red, Yellow, Blue, nice simple understanding so that is a big plus for me :).

I tend to use a lot of paint and buy 225ml tubes for £9.40 so you can see Prima Colore is roughly five time what I pay at the moment.

Thanks again, :wave: Dave

Gigalot
11-21-2013, 09:49 AM
I do like the fact that the primaries they sell are labelled Red, Yellow, Blue, nice simple understanding so that is a big plus for me :).


There aren't real pigments with the name Red, Yellow, Blue. This "simple understanding" just means that paint manufacturers hides real information about pigments, they are using. Personally, I can trust hidden colours, but only after my personal, strong lightfastness test.

Journeyman
11-21-2013, 02:03 PM
Wondered who would be the first to nibble at the primary coloured lure Alex :D Dave

WFMartin
11-21-2013, 02:34 PM
Being a color theorist, as well as a results-oriented sort of person, I have never given much thought to pigments in terms of their "natural" or "synthetic" properties. I am usually more concerned with the binder of the pigments (oil) than whether the pigments are natural or synthetic.

I tend to be mainly interested in their colors, their transparency, and their lightfastness. Of what they are made, and how they got that way are of much less concern to me.

How they behave alone, and in mixes is important to me. True, primary colors demonstrate properties and characteristics that no other colors demonstrate. One may call them "primary colors", "special colors", "unique colors", "basic colors"......it makes very little difference in terms of their names. They behave in a unique manner, and to me that is important to my operation.

One does not need to actually paint with them, or to even put them on one's palette, but to merely gain an understanding of how they are contributed by every color tube of paint in one's paint box, and in what proportions.

Mythrill
11-21-2013, 08:13 PM
Does anyone have any natural oil paint brands that i should check out? Must be high quality.

Ecobrush, what do you mean by "natural?" Made from plants and natural sources or "paint with the least adulterants possible?"

If you want to be absolutely about what your paint is made of (oil type, extenders, material source, etc) the best alternative is to buy pure pigment and make your own paint. "Kremer Pigments" is a great store, but there are a few others you can find too.

If you're not keen on making your own pigments, then your next best solution would be buying premium-brand paint, like Michael Harding's or Vasari's. The cheapest solution out of all of these (but still excellent) would be Maimeri Puro. You would have to check the code of the pigment, though.

karenlee
11-21-2013, 09:32 PM
Getting back to the original question about the difference between natural and synthtic pigments, I would say it's like the difference between a trumpet and a clarinet. it's hard to cover a trumpet with other sounds, and I have found that it is hard to cover synthetic colors or mix them down. Personally I am more attracted to subjects that require more subtle colors, and find synthetic pigments are hard to manage for ethereal effects. It can be done, but it is tiring. Best example I can think of is pthalocyanine green: take some and try to change it with other colors. It's hard to kill, and can make some atrocious mixtures. That said, I have plenty of both types --natural and synthetic-- in my paint collection. There is a use for them all.

Gigalot
11-22-2013, 03:47 AM
Wondered who would be the first to nibble at the primary coloured lure Alex :D Dave

We also have a great WC artist and colour theorist Gunzorro. He can lighten Prima Colore darkness for us! :)

sidbledsoe
11-22-2013, 11:01 AM
Do you get better results with natural colors? I've heard they are more vibrant and have wider color ranges when compared next to synthetic oil paints.
Regarding natural vs synthetic pigments, the opposite of this is the general rule, synthetics are more vibrant and have far wider color range than natural pigments.
There is one type of synthetic pigment such as an iron oxide PR101 vs a natural iron oxide PR102 and the main difference is whether some iron, in nature, combined with oxygen to form some rust. When man makes this same pigment, he obtains iron bars, grinds it up, combines it with oxygen and forms rust. Rust is rust whether it is produced naturally, or encouraged by man to be produced. It is still a natural chemical reaction either way. The differences are more a result of the conditions, temperatures, purities, time, etc. The "synthetic" iron oxide is made strong and very purely, whereas the natural iron oxide is not pure, and difficult to refine it to as pure a state as the "synthetic" iron oxide (rust).
So that is one form of synthetic pigment, so named because man is involved in the production.
There is another type of synthetic pigment, and that is the novel creation of a new construct of a pigment, that does not occur naturally. I believe one of the first "real" synthetic pigments was prussian blue. Many have been made since then. These are the true synthetic pigments to me, because they are not found in nature at all. They didn't exist at all until man synthesized them.
The pyrolles, pthalos, hansas, etc.
Either way, in general, synthetic pigments are more pure and stronger, in general.
but when you are mixing your color, you are the one in control of the color of the final mix, not the pigment(s). I can make a pthalo mix that has way lower chroma and intensity than another naturally occurring blue pigment mix.
Thus the resulting result and look of a painting is far more under the control of the artist, than any pigment or type of pigment.
Gamblin has a series of videos (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=V5ynSp5X1oU)that go over the history of pigment, from the naturals to the synthetics we also have today. There are two more segments that follow, on that channel.

Mythrill
11-22-2013, 12:50 PM
Regarding natural vs synthetic pigments, the opposite of this is the general rule, synthetics are more vibrant and have far wider color range than natural pigments.
There is one type of synthetic pigment such as an iron oxide PR101 vs a natural iron oxide PR102 and the main difference is whether some iron, in nature, combined with oxygen to form some rust. When man makes this same pigment, he obtains iron bars, grinds it up, combines it with oxygen and forms rust. Rust is rust whether it is produced naturally, or encouraged by man to be produced. It is still a natural chemical reaction either way. The differences are more a result of the conditions, temperatures, purities, time, etc. The "synthetic" iron oxide is made strong and very purely, whereas the natural iron oxide is not pure, and difficult to refine it to as pure a state as the "synthetic" iron oxide (rust).
So that is one form of synthetic pigment, so named because man is involved in the production.
There is another type of synthetic pigment, and that is the novel creation of a new construct of a pigment, that does not occur naturally. I believe one of the first "real" synthetic pigments was prussian blue. Many have been made since then. These are the true synthetic pigments to me, because they are not found in nature at all. They didn't exist at all until man synthesized them.
The pyrolles, pthalos, hansas, etc.
Either way, in general, synthetic pigments are more pure and stronger, in general.
but when you are mixing your color, you are the one in control of the color of the final mix, not the pigment(s). I can make a pthalo mix that has way lower chroma and intensity than another naturally occurring blue pigment mix.
Thus the resulting result and look of a painting is far more under the control of the artist, than any pigment or type of pigment.
Gamblin has a series of videos (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=V5ynSp5X1oU)that go over the history of pigment, from the naturals to the synthetics we also have today. There are two more segments that follow, on that channel.
Hi, sid!

I would disagree that it's possible to achieve the same subtleness of a lower-chroma blue using a higher-chroma blue. Sometimes it is, sometimes it's not.

Take any phthalo blue, for instance. When you add white or tint it (with oil, water, etc, depending on your medium,) it will actually jump up in chroma while it lightens. That's why, when you arrive at a hue equivalent to, say Cerulean Blue (PB 35,) you'll have a blue so chromatic that will threaten to steal the show on your painting – unless (maybe!) you use something to make it a bit more matte and reflect less light. Another option is to make all your primaries equally or more chromatic than your phthalo. A Cerulean Blue Hue made out of a Phthalo will also be very dominating in mixes: Cerulean Blue (PB35) mixed with PV19-gamma ("Quinacridone Rose") will make the mix lower in chroma, giving a beautiful, subdued purplish color. A hue made of Cerulean Blue made of Phthalo Blue will, instead, give a lightened, intense purple color (and usually whitened if any sort of white is on the mix.)

On a side note, I don't know why the traditional black pigments (Lamp Black, Ivory / Bone Black, and Vine Black) are considered inorganic. In modern organic chemistry, an organic compound is every compound that has carbon in the molecular structure, and all these blacks have carbon (Lamp Black is pretty much only carbon!) I guess they're perceived that way because they jump down in chroma when lightened with white and they're very lightfast – which are almost always traits of inorganic pigments – but that would be misleading.

sidbledsoe
11-22-2013, 01:33 PM
Take any phthalo blue, for instance. When you add white or tint it (with oil, water, etc, depending on your medium,) it will actually jump up in chroma while it lightens.
Because in masstone some colors chroma is masked by the darkness, when white is added it jumps in chroma for a small amount, but then reaches a threshold level, then decreases in chroma as more white is added.
But regardless, I am talking about lowering the chroma of an intense pigment such as a pthalo, by whatever means necessary, adding complementary orange, browns, blacks, or all of the above.
I can make a pthalo mix that has way lower chroma and intensity than another naturally occurring blue pigment mix.
You can most certainly make a mix utilizing a high chroma pigment such as a phthalo, with greys, black, and complements, and reduce it to far less chroma mix than something like a natural ultramarine blue right of of the tube.

Because the poster said this:
I've heard they are more vibrant and have wider color ranges when compared next to synthetic oil paints.
I said the opposite, that synthetics are generally more vibrant, wider ranges, but that even if you use higher chroma pigments such as synthetics, that doesn't dictate that your resulting color mixes will all be too high chroma for you to use. You can make a black with two intense high chroma pigments, Gamblin sells a chromatic black that has a mix of three, I believe.
Printers use high chroma synthetics instead of lower chroma natural pigments, except for the black.
You can tone down any intense pigment, but you cannot make a higher chroma mix than your palette colors will allow.
I don't know why the traditional black pigments (Lamp Black, Ivory / Bone Black, and Vine Black) are considered inorganic. There are many natural organic pigments (http://www.handprint.com/HP/WCL/pigmt1c.html), and those blacks are certainly considered to be organic too.

There are some who prefer natural pigments and believe that they look better than synthetic pigments, due to particle size and morphology and such.
But I don't personally buy into that too much.

Gigalot
11-22-2013, 02:47 PM
In modern organic chemistry, an organic compound is every compound that has carbon in the molecular structure, and all these blacks have carbon (Lamp Black is pretty much only carbon!).

100% Carbon is 100% inorganic. Organic molecule must have carbon atoms directly associated with a hydrogen atoms. Carbonates, Carbide or tetrachloride is just inorganic. An exception is tetrafluorethilene, Teflon.

Mythrill
11-22-2013, 06:14 PM
100% Carbon is 100% inorganic. Organic molecule must have carbon atoms directly associated with a hydrogen atoms. Carbonates, Carbide or tetrachloride is just inorganic. An exception is tetrafluorethilene, Teflon.

Wow, living and learning, Giga. I would never now that carbon structures also need to be bound by hydrogen atoms.

rltromble
11-23-2013, 03:19 AM
We also have a great WC artist and colour theorist Gunzorro. He can lighten Prima Colore darkness for us! :)
Speaking of Jim, I haven't seen him since I got back.
As for the phalo comments , this only appears to happens because phalos are transparent pigments, when you add white they become opaque and the real mass tone becomes clear. It is kind of like stacking layers of stained glass on top of each other. the more you add the darker it looks, place the glass on top of a piece of white paper and it looks brighter.

Tiasa
11-27-2013, 09:01 PM
I would disagree that it's possible to achieve the same subtleness of a lower-chroma blue using a higher-chroma blue. Sometimes it is, sometimes it's not.

I think it depends on the colors you use. One of the things I learned from making a color wheel from cyan, magenta, and yellow acrylic paint is that you can get subtle, low chroma colors from thalos, quinacridones, and hansas. Before that, I didn’t think it was possible either. I also learned that the chart tells you what the complement is that will dull these bright colors.

http://www.wetcanvas.com/Community/images/27-Nov-2013/91784-CMY-Primary-Wheel.jpg

Thalo Blue (PB 15:4) can be dulled with its complement which is labeled “Secondary Red” on this chart. All you need to do is mix some PR122 Quinacridone Magenta with PY74 Hansa Yellow Opaque. The mixture should be red--not orange and not bluish-red. That will dull Thalo Blue. In fact, the Thalo Blue will turn black if you aren’t careful.

I tried this with tube color substitutes for the “Secondary Red” (pyrrole red and napthol red) and didn’t like the mixtures as well as what I got from using the cyan, magenta, and yellow primaries on the chart. Both pyrrole red and napthol red did dull Thalo Blue, but the colors seemed more dead than I liked. They also turned black faster. If you can’t get a dull blue or black, you are probably not using true cyan, magenta, and yellow in your mixtures.

I think it is easier to find true CMY primaries with acrylics using synthetic organic pigments. Golden Paints has a great chart of organic/inorganic pigments here: http://www.goldenpaints.com/technicaldata/orginpig.php

However, I think you can still find the right colors with oil paints. Bill Martin is the expert in that area and I think he has posted the best tube paints to use for oil painting with these three primaries.

Barbareola
11-28-2013, 05:45 PM
Wait a second… I am trying to wrap my brain around this: they (this Prima color company) are actually using *chlorophyll* for their green?! Seriously?!

Using chlorophyll as a pigment lets alizarin crimson look like a mountain of light fastness. I am speechless.

Chlorophyll probably has even no ASTM rating, because no person in his/her sane mind would use it for artist colors. Nor a honest person who is not out to rip somebody of.

I have extracted chlorophyll with students and used it for chromotography or to dye wool threads. Onion skins have better staining capability and better lightfastness. Several magnitudes better.

There are two possibilities: either the oil and other supplements in the oil colours protect the chlorophyll long enough to be able to paint something. But you better not attach your heart to your masterpiece because there is no chance of it surviving.

The other possibility: they don't use chlorophyll but some other pigment which makes this shady advertisement at best.

The problem is that "natural" is a confusing term. Some countries regulate its use (Germany does) but I don't know if they do it in Brasilia (where this company is based) and if they do how firmly it is controlled.

Some background on these terms:

A paint consists basically of a binder that is specific to the medium like oil, acrylic base, gum arrabicum. Then there are supplements like fillers, anti-molding agents and so forth. And then of course there is what gives the paint its color - either a pigment or a dye.

Pigments are solid particles that are suspended in the medium. Dyes are either liquid from the start or will dissolve in the medium.

Chemically, both pigments and dyes can be either inorganic or organic. Organic meaning that they are carbon based, not that they are derived from living organisms, though pure carbon, carbonic acids and its salts as well as carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide are consider inorganic.

Inorganic pigments are at the core of humankind's oldest paintings - Look at the paintings in Altamira and Lascaux for example. Their lightfastness is often beyond rock solid. Their disadvantage: while the palette of mother nature is big, it has its limits. Also, some of the inorganic pigments while very beautiful are also very toxic so in many places they are forbidden, like lead white here in Germany for example.

Inorganic dyes are not really relevant to paint making. Which leaves us with organic pigments or dyes. As I said, organic refers to their chemical properties, not their origins. Both organic pigments or dyes can be extracted from living organisms like plants or snythesized.

Those that are extracted are often very beautiful and intense colours. However, nature really had no reason to select for good lightfastness. So some of the most beautiful paints have very poor lightfastness, like for example the infamous alizarin crimson, rose madder genuine or opera rose. Depending on the medium, their survival varies. Oil colour generally hold up better with watercolors being on the low end, so that you need to hide your art from light or watch it disspate.

So why have organic dyes like alizarin crimson survived so long? For centuries the answer was: there was no alternative. Use a non-lightfast red or use no red at all. End of… no, not end of story.

At the end of the 19th century, the first organic dyes were synthesized. "Synthesized" is a muddy term as well. It can either refer to creating the same chemical outside a living organism or in another context, it can refer to creating a chemical that is not produced in living organism.

During the 20th century chemists learned to produce pigments and dyes that cover a very large spectrum of colours, that have equal or even better lightfastness that the pigments and dyes found in nature, that are less toxic and safer to use, cheaper and have less impact on nature (selecting and killing thousands of squids for sepia or molluscs for purple wreacs havoc on an ecosystem). There is no rational reason to use the traditional pigments and dyes other than clinging to tradition, romanticising "the good old times" and generally distrusting the chemical industry.

So where does the term "natural" come in? For better illustration, let's pick a non-artsy example: natural strawberry flavor. Here in the European union, you are allowed to call an aromatic substance natural if it is derived from the natural organism, for example if you extract strawberry flavor from strawberries. If you synthesize it - even if it is 100% chemically identical - you must call it "identical to natural" which sounds less tasty, doesn't it? Not that your body would care, because if works just the same. However, the companies have clever advertising departments. If you use bacteria (which are living organisms) to produce your strawberry flavor (as most of it is) then this batch of strawberry flavor is "natural" even though it has never even been close to a strawberry.

What does that mean for paints? Depending on local laws, how well they are controlled and what legal loopholes there might be, "natural" could be many things. It might mean that the pigment or dye is derived from a living organsim or its traditional source, like squids, molluscs or ground up lapis lazuli. Or it might be that it refers to pigments and dyes synthesized and otherwise being chemically identical to the traditional product.

What bugs me is that often companies will use the term "natural" to appeal the irrational side in people that is afraid of synthesized chemicals even though their customers understanding of what is natural might be very different than what they actually do, like with the strawberry flavour.
Or, if the traditional pigment is one of the cheaper ones, "natural" might mean "well, we are not using the modern substitue because it is more expensive" or if the quality of the "natural" (meaning traditional) is low it might mean "well, there are substitutes of a higher quality but we can't be bothered to give it name that doesn't scare people with its chemicalness and educate them, so they'll stop clinging to inferior products".

So what does it all mean for you as an artist? If I were you, I wouldn't care if my colours are "natural" or not but what properties they have and if those work for you. Relevant properties would be toxicity, lightfastness, transparency and for some mediums like watercolor staining or granulating properties. If you can get those properties without needing to kill squids, the better.

karenlee
11-29-2013, 07:35 PM
[QUOTE=Mythrill]

I would disagree that it's possible to achieve the same subtleness of a lower-chroma blue using a higher-chroma blue. Sometimes it is, sometimes it's not.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

I think there is some common sense involved here...like I would not start with flourescent colors to mix a subtle, low chroma palette. Therefore I would not start with modern synthetic colors to mix a suble, low chroma palette-- could be a headache and a waste of paint; I would start with mineral colors instead. I think that's a meaningful difference.

Gigalot
11-30-2013, 04:50 AM
[QUOTE=Mythrill]

I would disagree that it's possible to achieve the same subtleness of a lower-chroma blue using a higher-chroma blue. Sometimes it is, sometimes it's not.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

I think there is some common sense involved here...like I would not start with flourescent colors to mix a subtle, low chroma palette. Therefore I would not start with modern synthetic colors to mix a suble, low chroma palette-- could be a headache and a waste of paint; I would start with mineral colors instead. I think that's a meaningful difference.

Then needs a many different colours and many tubes to do that. However, I am agree, it might be more comfortable to mix low chromatic colors from earth pigments, but, having enough experience you can mix any color you need from CMYK only. Everything, that I want - just to mix COLOR to paint properly, and not necessary for me to imitate any azurite, vivianite, vermilionite or Australian kangaroonite's full pigment properties like consistency, transparency, smell and crystalline structure. You can spent million dollars and years of life, but you never mix true viridian, true burnt sienna or real chrome yellow from other pigments.

In my imagination Paint = Scientific COLOR + Alchemical "Working properties" :D And "bad working properties" of Phthalo do not means you can't get proper color from it.

sidbledsoe
11-30-2013, 11:45 AM
synthetic pigments are more pure and stronger, in general.
but when you are mixing your color, you are the one in control of the color of the final mix, not the pigment(s). I can make a pthalo mix that has way lower chroma and intensity than another naturally occurring blue pigment mix.
Thus the resulting look of a painting is far more under the control of the artist, than any pigment or type of pigment.
All I meant here was that it doesn't matter whether you use synthetic or natural pigments, in terms of chroma and intensity. It is all under the control of the color mixer person. I do not have any natural blue pigment paint, but cobalt would be in the range of chroma that a natural ultramarine or smalt might have. But I can easily make a far lower chroma blue color, starting with either phthalo or prussian which are both very strong high chroma synthetic paints.
http://www.wetcanvas.com/Community/images/30-Nov-2013/112587-IMG_0042.JPG

Mythrill
11-30-2013, 02:58 PM
All I meant here was that it doesn't matter whether you use synthetic or natural pigments, in terms of chroma and intensity. It is all under the control of the color mixer person. I do not have any natural blue pigment paint, but cobalt would be in the range of chroma that a natural ultramarine or smalt might have. But I can easily make a far lower chroma blue color, starting with either phthalo or prussian which are both very strong high chroma synthetic paints.
http://www.wetcanvas.com/Community/images/30-Nov-2013/112587-IMG_0042.JPG

The problem is that, even though you have achieved these low-chroma mixes, they have grayed significantly (i.e, "look dull.") If you get Cerulean Blue (PB35,) which should be around the same hue for, you'll see that it looks far brighter, while still being a delicate color.

I tried to spend a while trying to write a plausible explanation for why this happens, but I don't really know the reason. I suspect this has to do with how real-world paints behave. They're subtractive in nature, which means you can't lighten or darken colors by adding another and make the resulting mix more saturated.

One example of this would be Cobalt Turquoise (PG50, W&N) / Cobalt Teal Blue (Daniel Smith.) At first sight, it seems a beautiful (but dispensable) whitened blue-green. But the moment you mix it with PY3, you'll see how your eyes can be so deceiving: the resulting green is so bright it actually looks fluorescent! The saturation in this mix cannot be achieved by mixing Phthalo Blue Green Shade (PB15:3, the bluer cousin of PB15:1) and the very same PY3!

Of course, in many cases, you don't want eye-popping colors anyway, or the single-pigment color doesn't harmonize well with your palette (which is the case when trying to use PG7 without any premixing with the three other primaries.) Since color harmony is far more important in painting, usually a grayed-down color will do; in fact, this is why many people don't have single-pigment greens in their palettes: high-chroma greens can look so unnatural that the duller mixes you get with blue and yellow (and / or black) tend to be more than enough.

sidbledsoe
11-30-2013, 03:33 PM
There is no problem at all, the fact remains that I can use a strong synthetic blue pigment, and make another blue mix that is far below the chroma and intensity of another given natural blue pigment. Limited palette users like Mark Carder do it every day.
I originally said this because the original poster said:
I've heard they are more vibrant and have wider color ranges when compared next to synthetic oil paints
I said that I have always understood the opposite, that synthetics are generally stronger and more vibrant, such as the phthalos.
So the only point I was making was that you can make less vibrant colors, and over a wider color range with many synthetic pigments, such as phthalos etc. It is the whole reasoning behind using intensely strong CYMK colors in printers, which can then mix and make the widest range of colors, with the widest range of chromas and intensities.
You can lower the value and chroma and not change the hue at all, if you use a neutral gray to do it. It is for this specific purpose that Williamsburg makes these grays (http://www.goldenpaints.com/company/news/2013/neutral_gray/):

Mythrill
11-30-2013, 06:54 PM
There is no problem at all, the fact remains that I can use a strong synthetic blue pigment, and make another blue mix that is far below the chroma and intensity of another given natural blue pigment. Limited palette users like Mark Carder do it every day.
I originally said this because the original poster said:

I said that I have always understood the opposite, that synthetics are generally stronger and more vibrant, such as the phthalos.
So the only point I was making was that you can make less vibrant colors, and over a wider color range with many synthetic pigments, such as phthalos etc. It is the whole reasoning behind using intensely strong CYMK colors in printers, which can then mix and make the widest range of colors, with the widest range of chromas and intensities.
You can lower the value and chroma and not change the hue at all, if you use a neutral gray to do it. It is for this specific purpose that Williamsburg makes these grays (http://www.goldenpaints.com/company/news/2013/neutral_gray/):
Printer colors can indeed reproduce a wide gamut of colors, but that does not mean they can reproduce all colors. I'm sure you have notice that the color that seems magenta doesn't look "quite right" when printing. That applies to computer screens as well. Have you taken a photo of any painting that had color hues in the magenta color space only to notice they don't look "quite right?" Or that "lemon yellow" that looks perfect on your painting either looks "dirty" or "too washed out" on your photo (the latter one being more common?) There are thousands of threads on Wetcanvas alone about paintings photographed with different cameras, and the result is striking.

If printers, cameras and computer monitors can reproduce all colors, then why is it that they never get some (again, magentas and bright colors, specially yellows) right? You could argue that it is due to different light conditions, but this distortion happens even under controlled light and with calibrated cameras and monitors. If you use pigments other than the primaries, even if they are close in hue to mixes of near-ideal primaries we have today, they are very likely to yield a gamut that is impossible to reach with primary colors.
Does that lack of gamut mean, though, that it's impossible to reach realistic paintings without "exotic pigments," say, Cobalt Blue (PB28,) Vermillion (PR106,) or Genuine Naples Yellow (PY41?)
Of course not! Classical painters were masters of creating realistic art using a very limited palette, like Ivory Black (PBk9,) Yellow Ochre (PY43,) Terra Rosa (or some natural variant, all PR102) and Flake White (PW1!) Sure you they didn't have the same gamut of using these pigments, but they excel in other areas: composition, themes, execution, color harmony... and these aspects are even more important than a wide color gamut, aren't they? :)

sidbledsoe
11-30-2013, 07:07 PM
Mythrill, I do not know what your problem is with what I said, but I think what you should do is to reread exactly what I said and try understand it, and to understand the simplicity of what the concept is of what I said.
Color printers use a color mixing system in which they can make lower chroma colors from strong high chroma pigments (inks).
I did not make any claims about printers reproducing all colors, nor did I say that it is impossible to paint realistic paintings with lower chroma pigments, nor did I say anything regarding even the slightest concept about composition, themes, execution, color harmony, nor any other aspects.
I said that I can start with high chroma pigments and I can then make lower chroma mixes out of them, this is an irrefutable fact and people and printers are doing just that every single day.

Here you have agreed that I did make lower chroma mixes.
you have achieved these low-chroma mixes, they have grayed significantly (i.e, "look dull.")
lowering chroma is making a color nearer to a gray, that is an example of the very definition (http://www.thefreedictionary.com/chroma) of chroma.

But for some unknown reason, you are trying to dispute this fact and what I said, and thus conclude that I said something wrong. I did not say anything wrong, nor did I make any negative comments about classical painters, nor the colors they used, nor anything negative about natural pigments.

Mythrill
11-30-2013, 10:00 PM
Mythrill, I do not know what your problem is with what I said, but I think what you should do is to reread exactly what I said and try understand it, and to understand the simplicity of what the concept is of what I said.
Color printers use a color mixing system in which they can make lower chroma colors from strong high chroma pigments (inks).
I did not make any claims about printers reproducing all colors, nor did I say that it is impossible to paint realistic paintings with lower chroma pigments, nor did I say anything regarding even the slightest concept about composition, themes, execution, color harmony, nor any other aspects.
I said that I can start with high chroma pigments and I can then make lower chroma mixes out of them, this is an irrefutable fact and people and printers are doing just that every single day.

Here you have agreed that I did make lower chroma mixes.

lowering chroma is making a color nearer to a gray, that is an example of the very definition (http://www.thefreedictionary.com/chroma) of chroma.

But for some unknown reason, you are trying to dispute this fact and what I said, and thus conclude that I said something wrong. I did not say anything wrong, nor did I make any negative comments about classical painters, nor the colors they used, nor anything negative about natural pigments.

I see this is a sensitive topic, so I'll abstain from further comments.

sidbledsoe
11-30-2013, 10:46 PM
I see this is a sensitive topic I may be at a loss to understand your issues with what I posted, but there isn't anything sensitive about this topic to me.

1-I said that I could lower the chroma of a high chroma paint,
you did not agree and stated your issues with that.

2-I demonstrated lowering chroma of intense blues with my actual mixes,
you did not agree and again stated your issues with that.

3-I said that color printers use high chroma pigments and mix lower chroma colors.
you did not agree and again stated your issues with that.

I think that you do not understand what I have posted. For instance,
here I said this:
the resulting result and look of a painting is far more under the control of the artist, than any pigment or type of pigment.
What I have clearly said here is that the artist is the one who controls the look of the painting, not the paint.

Yet you still directly asked me this, when I was not arguing this point:
they didn't have the same gamut of using these pigments, but they excel in other areas: composition, themes, execution, color harmony... and these aspects are even more important than a wide color gamut, aren't they?
I never said that having a wider range of color would result in a better painting, in essence I said the same thing you did, that it is the artist who is in control.

0chre
12-01-2013, 08:46 AM
Hi Mythrill,

What Sid is basically (and IMO correctly) saying is: With high chroma pigments, you can mix a wider range of colors than with low chroma pigments, because with high chroma pigments you can mix low chroma colors, but with low chroma pigments you can't mix high chroma colors.

I too don't quite understand what it is about this that you object against. You either have some insight we don't have, which could be valuable for our knowledge and understanding, or you have some misconception you are not aware of that we could sort out, which would benefit your knowledge and understanding.

Since I don't see any "sensitiveness" in Sid's posts and since there's only something to gain and nothing to lose here, could you please explain what you mean exactly?

sidbledsoe
12-01-2013, 09:02 AM
Yes, Ochre is correct and he also added that low chroma colors can't be made more chromatic, except with higher chroma colors.
What I was commenting on about this part of the original posters question:
I've heard they are more vibrant and have wider color ranges when compared next to synthetic oil paints
I said that I have always found the opposite to be true, that synthetics are often more vibrant etc, in general.

And then I added that you can tone more vibrant colors down all you want, because the poster asked this question:
Do you get better results with natural colors?

karenlee
12-01-2013, 10:28 AM
sometimes when people go to extremes to explicate and defend their opinions, a thread turns into a nasty thing. what is the problem.

0chre
12-01-2013, 10:48 AM
Maybe there are some different interpretations of what vibrant means.

It seems that Sid and I are translating vibrant mainly as high in chroma (and in addition to that I'd say vibrancy is also for a large part a matter of color relationships and contrasts (and Sid will probably agree with this)), but maybe Mythrill and the topic starter have different ideas about what vibrancy is, causing a less than optimal (;)) communication about this?

Maybe in some cases natural pigments look a little more vibrant than their synthetic counterparts, because the first consists of particles that vary slightly in hue, and the latter is homogenous and therefore a bit more "dead". Maybe that is what the topic starter and Mythrill are talking about...?

Mythrill
12-01-2013, 02:43 PM
Well, I don't know what else to say. Sid, are you correlating chroma with color gamut (the types of hues certain colors can give when combined?)

Mythrill
12-01-2013, 02:44 PM
sometimes when people go to extremes to explicate and defend their opinions, a thread turns into a nasty thing. what is the problem.
I agree, and I'm sorry if I did that.

sidbledsoe
12-01-2013, 05:17 PM
Sid, are you correlating chroma with color gamut (the types of hues certain colors can give when combined?)
No, they are separate things that I did not correlate.
Hue, chroma, and value are the three measurable attributes of color. As Dr. Briggs explains on this page, Chroma (http://www.huevaluechroma.com/082.php) is the perceived strength of a surface colour, the degree of visual difference from a neutral grey of the same lightness. Chroma is the perceived strength of a surface colour, the degree of visual difference from a neutral grey of the same lightness.

Color gamut, as I am using it, is the entire range of colors that can be mixed from all the colors one has available to use.

Looking at the 3D model of color, (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Munsell-system.svg) chroma goes from a given color point on the perimeter and includes all the levels of chroma from there to the center (gray)
The color gamut describes all the possible colors top to bottom, and from the outside to the inside points. So the color gamut includes all of the respective variations in hue, chroma, and value for each color.

Also, there are no printers involved when we read any threads, and view any images online on Wetcanvas.
Computer monitors, which display RGB signals, typically have a greater color gamut than a printer, which uses CMYK inks.

I really think that enough has been said now about my comments, and the thread should return to responding to the original poster's questions regarding natural vs synthetic pigments.

ScorpioPhoenix64
12-10-2013, 07:29 PM
If I may, I wonder if it boils down to the fun science mixed with a desire to save money. Wouldn't it be GREAT if we could all find 8-12 personal pigments, like a game of battleship, with which to astonish the world in our creativity? I think so. For me, the question is, since synthetic organics are brighter and cleaner CAN THEY mimic the nature and visual depth of the natural earth pigments? It doesn't work the other way but, could it work so that the mixing of the newer pigments create the old? I think so.
Although, I will admit...I'm having trouble with dull, deep yellow and green umbers and olives.

opainter
12-11-2013, 01:47 AM
Wouldn't it be GREAT if we could all find 8-12 personal pigments, like a game of battleship, with which to astonish the world in our creativity? I think so.

Quite naturally, I have just done that! :lol:

If there's enough interest, I'll reveal them to the waiting world! :D

I'm imagining the world holding its collective breath ... :rolleyes:

Mythrill
12-14-2013, 05:32 PM
Quite naturally, I have just done that! :lol:

If there's enough interest, I'll reveal them to the waiting world! :D

I'm imagining the world holding its collective breath ... :rolleyes:
I would love to see your experiment, opainter.

Mythrill
12-14-2013, 05:38 PM
If I may, I wonder if it boils down to the fun science mixed with a desire to save money. Wouldn't it be GREAT if we could all find 8-12 personal pigments, like a game of battleship, with which to astonish the world in our creativity? I think so. For me, the question is, since synthetic organics are brighter and cleaner CAN THEY mimic the nature and visual depth of the natural earth pigments? It doesn't work the other way but, could it work so that the mixing of the newer pigments create the old? I think so.
Although, I will admit...I'm having trouble with dull, deep yellow and green umbers and olives.
Hi, Liberal!

There are posts here on Wetcanvas just about comparing three different pigments on many different brands, like Genuine Naples (PY41) vs Nickel Titanate Yellow (PY53, "lemon" side of the spectrum,) and Nickel Titanate Yellow (Pbr24, "orange" side of the spectrum.) Sometimes there are even posts about only two pigment, comparing synthetic red iron oxide (PR 101) to its natural counterpart (PR102.) Some people love collecting and comparing colors!

I guess I'm guilty as charged here, too. I have 3 different tubes of Phthalos: one from W&N, Green Shade, (PB 15:3,) a local brand, Corfix, Red Shade (PB 15:1,) and Pebeo, Green Shade (PB 15:3.) It's amazing how they vary... the "Green" shade of Pebeo, for instance, is the least green – it's very, very close to PB15:1!

I guess I don't need to say I love those topics as well, too, do I? It's nice to see 8 or 9 brands of paint being compared!

opainter
12-16-2013, 01:22 AM
I would love to see your experiment, opainter.

I don't have one color for the palette yet, so after a trip to the store (not sure when I'll be able to do that), I can post my information. Hands-on testing will help me determine if one of the colors in the palette can be mixed from other colors (including the color I plan to get). If I can drop one of the colors to make the palette more manageable, I'll do that.

I'll put my results in a separate thread here in the "Color Theory and Mixing" section. :thumbsup: That way it will be able to get the attention that I hope it deserves!

llawrence
12-18-2013, 04:55 PM
So some of the most beautiful paints have very poor lightfastness, like for example the infamous alizarin crimson, rose madder genuine or opera rose.Excellent post Barareola, and I agree with all of it except the above. Rose madder has "fair" to "very good" lightfastness, depending on the medium and manufacture. "Very poor" would be more like the chlorophyll you mentioned.

opainter
12-23-2013, 12:58 AM
Wouldn't it be GREAT if we could all find 8-12 personal pigments, like a game of battleship, with which to astonish the world in our creativity? I think so.

Quite naturally, I have just done that!

If there's enough interest, I'll reveal them to the waiting world!

I'm imagining the world holding its collective breath ...

I would love to see your experiment, opainter.

I'll put my results in a separate thread here in the "Color Theory and Mixing" section. That way it will be able to get the attention that I hope it deserves!

I have just done that, and here is the post (http://www.wetcanvas.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1338063).

kinasi
12-23-2013, 02:18 AM
I've heard they are more vibrant and have wider color ranges when compared next to synthetic oil paints.

You would have a terribly limited color gamut if you only used natural pigments.

You wouldn't have phthalo, no quinacridones, no hansa yellows, no ultramarine, no synthetic iron oxides, no cadmium, no cobalt, no pyrolle.

It would be great for painting brown pots I guess.

All the older paintings look so dull and all have a brown undertone because they relied much more on pigments they literally dug up from the ground.

You wouldn't even have a white in most brands to use, your lightest color would be a natural yellow ochre, and even that is replaced with PY42 in many brands.

"Brown pot in shadow" would be your best painting ~

http://www.wetcanvas.com/Community/images/23-Dec-2013/1558522-5464654.JPG

0chre
12-23-2013, 08:27 AM
All the older paintings look so dull and all have a brown undertone because they relied much more on pigments they literally dug up from the ground.Yes, so dull, like
http://www.wetcanvas.com/Community/images/23-Dec-2013/211143-2.1-12_MARY_The_Annunciation_Jan_van_Eyck.jpg

and
http://www.wetcanvas.com/Community/images/23-Dec-2013/211143-vermeer.jpg

:D

(Please note: I'm not objecting to the statement that natural pigments don't have the chromatic range that synthetic pigments have ;), only against the notion that old paintings are all dull.)

kinasi
12-23-2013, 08:38 AM
Yes, so dull, like
http://www.wetcanvas.com/Community/images/23-Dec-2013/211143-2.1-12_MARY_The_Annunciation_Jan_van_Eyck.jpg

and


:D

(Please note: I'm not objecting to the statement that natural pigments don't have the chromatic range that synthetic pigments have ;), only against the notion that old paintings are all dull.)
I've seen those painting, in fact I was born in vilvoorde which is a city a few miles from where van eyck was born.

this is what it looks like in RL, you have colors in that picture that are 255 saturation on that jpeg, you can't even do that with the most saturated reds we have now like pyrolle

they had no access to those highly chromatic colors in your picture, espeically not the bright yellow and green

old pictures when you look at them in real life and not through google, look dull, often extremely dull, they had no access at all to high chroma paints, you can glaze paint all day, it's not going to increase the chroma of your paints

it's not "some" that look dull, they all in fact look dull, unless they were restored improperly, they simply didn't have high chromatic paints

http://www.wetcanvas.com/Community/images/23-Dec-2013/1558522-TINY_PIC.JPG

that picture was actually restored btw, you can't really use it to say what color he had access too

van eyck had access to "rood karmijn", which is carmine, which is dull red, and that was one of his highest chroma colors he had access to

left carmine red what he had, right what we have now:

http://www.wetcanvas.com/Community/images/23-Dec-2013/1558522-sfsfsfsfsfsfs.JPG

this is one of his pictures before restoration, how it truly looked:

http://www.wetcanvas.com/Community/images/23-Dec-2013/1558522-site_64.JPG

kinasi
12-23-2013, 09:16 AM
only against the notion that old paintings are all dull.)
it's not a notion, high chroma pigments simply didn't exist back then, they came with the industrial revolution, which is when painters got access to pigments like cadmium and cobalts, impressionists had access to them, monet used them, impressionist paintings don't look vivid because they painted au premier coup or used pointilism, they look vivid because they were the first painters who had access to vivid high chroma pigments with much cleaner binders, no longer made by the painter themselves or a small group of devotees, but paints made on an industrial scale with access to the best pigments the industrial revolution gave them, and they greatly exploited this newfound gamut

van eyck only had access to carmin, ultramarine, vermillion and earth colors, those would have been his highest chroma paints, the ultramarine would have been an extremely dull blue compared to the ultramarine we have now, which is a synthetic

Gigalot
12-23-2013, 01:24 PM
High chroma pigments was particularly an expensive things in Europe. But old masters use them in medieval and renaissance period.
Verdigris green, Cinnabar, Orpiment, Ultramarine, Realgar are quite chromatic. Lead-tin Yellow. Ambrosius Boschaert painted beautiful flowers. But in Baroque period main color was asphaltum. :D

0chre
12-23-2013, 01:32 PM
it's not a notion, high chroma pigments simply didn't exist back thenFor me, using (relatively) low chroma pigments does not equate to making dull paintings. Human vision is not objective or absolute. Smart use of contrast (in hue and/or in chroma) can produce results that appear to be much more vivid and higher in chroma than they objectively are. This is one of the things many old painters excelled in. To me, there's nothing dull about the paintings you posted or about many old paintings I've seen in musea.

kinasi
12-23-2013, 01:45 PM
To me, there's nothing dull about the paintings you posted

lol pft!

I'll put it against a monet who had access to cadmiums and cobalt, tell me it doesn't look dull again.


http://www.wetcanvas.com/Community/images/23-Dec-2013/1558522-1558522-site_64.JPG

http://www.wetcanvas.com/Community/images/23-Dec-2013/1558522-monet-la-promenade-sur-la-falaise.jpg

kinasi
12-23-2013, 01:47 PM
Human vision is not objective or absolute.
It is, we're trained to recognise high chroma colors for survival.

It's part of our survival instincts. High chroma color tends to signify living organisms, fruits, vegetables, etc

That's why fisher-price sells all their toys for kids with high chroma colors, kids are instinctly drawn to high chroma colors. It doesn't work as well on adults, we tend to have made up our mind before we go shopping, we take lots of other things into account outside of looks. Kids however are very vulnerable to their instincts, and toy companies know this.

Interpretation might differ from person to person, but we are, from birth, genetically coded to recognise certain colors.

I'll show you with an experiment.

Tell me which color you notice the most:

http://www.wetcanvas.com/Community/images/23-Dec-2013/1558522-tyrtyryry.jpg


The green and the magenta right.

For some reason, the other colors seem less important. You might even say they disappear into the background.

It's not the hue causing this response, there's 3 dull magenta there you completely ignored, you focused on the 1 single high chroma one. you didn't even realise there were 3 dull magenta until you read this.

(A few lines up I actually said to you "the magenta" without specifying which one, you instinctly assumed it was the high chroma one, it could have been any of the other colors)

If I asked you to look away and tell me which colors you saw, you would only be able to recall the 2 high chroma ones.

You're instinctly drawn to high chroma color because of genes that tell you to from birth.

There is no ambiguity in humans about what is dull and what is highly saturated. It's encoded in our genes.



the fact these phones look like this
http://www.wetcanvas.com/Community/images/23-Dec-2013/1558522-Nokia-Lumia-710-colors.jpg


and not like this:

http://www.wetcanvas.com/Community/images/23-Dec-2013/1558522-fhfhfhfh.jpg
is not a coincidence

0chre
12-23-2013, 02:33 PM
It is, we're trained to recognise high chroma colors for survival.We're trained to recognise high chroma colors amidst lower chroma colors for survival. If our vision was objective, none of the many color illusions would work. Painting would be a lot easier, because we would have to learn about color constancy and stuff like that. We judge colors in relation to other colors.
I'll put it against a monet who had access to cadmiums and cobalt, tell me it doesn't look dull again.Exactly! :D When put against something else, i.e. relatively speaking. You can make the Monet look dull too, if you put it against a painting with even higher chroma colors (as this digital masterpiece by me shows;)):
http://www.wetcanvas.com/forums/data:image/png;base64,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://www.wetcanvas.com/Community/images/23-Dec-2013/211143-wow.jpg
http://www.wetcanvas.com/Community/images/23-Dec-2013/1558522-monet-la-promenade-sur-la-falaise.jpg

There is no ambiguity in humans about what is dull and what is highly saturated. It's encoded in our genes.Speaking about colors seen in isolation you are probably right. But not when you can compare colors to one another. A high chroma color will look duller in a painting with only high chroma colors than in a painting with a lot of low chroma colors.

kinasi
12-23-2013, 02:40 PM
everything has a place on a chromatic scale

that the old painters had duller paintings can't be that hard to agree on

apparently it is, I'll just leave it at that I think

0chre
12-23-2013, 02:47 PM
that the old painters had duller paintings can't be that hard to agree onDuller, yes. Dull, no. I'm glad we agree. ;)

Gigalot
12-23-2013, 03:26 PM
It is, we're trained to recognise high chroma colors for survival.

It's part of our survival instincts. High chroma color tends to signify living organisms, fruits, vegetables, etc

That's why fisher-price sells all their toys for kids with high chroma colors, kids are instinctly drawn to high chroma colors. It doesn't work as well on adults, we tend to have made up our mind before we go shopping, we take lots of other things into account outside of looks. Kids however are very vulnerable to their instincts, and toy companies know this.

Interpretation might differ from person to person, but we are, from birth, genetically coded to recognise certain colors.



Composition must have a protected viewpoint, tree and leaves makes good camouflage against predators, river is a fresh water needs to survive, and is a perfect part of composition; upper position gives a broad overview, animals on the far field are good hunting objects and meat, violet and crimson color is prefered as a food, berries color among green leaves, framed paintig looks better because frame makes barrier against attack from flanks. Safe flanks make you feel more happy. Bad, closed viewpoint on paintigs make your feel worry, unsafe and less comfortable.
A lot of bright colors around you can unmask your current position and it is also associated with poisonous plants and toxic animals around you and, therefore gives you some discomfort, but naked women makes you very happy and lucky anyway!

Mythrill
01-04-2014, 12:34 PM
the fact these phones look like this
http://www.wetcanvas.com/Community/images/23-Dec-2013/1558522-Nokia-Lumia-710-colors.jpg


and not like this:

http://www.wetcanvas.com/Community/images/23-Dec-2013/1558522-fhfhfhfh.jpg
is not a coincidence
Actually, "silver" (metallic gray!) is a pretty popular color with computer accessories, as well as black and white. Is there anything less chromatic than white, "silver" and black?

What you forgot to explain is that, while when we are children we react very positively to high-chroma colors, when we grow up we start to develop complex meanings and feelings towards them. It's not just about being in a hurry to shop or not.

Here's an example: in Byzantine Greece, purple meant royal power. Peasants were forbidden to use any color dyed in Tyrian Purple, which is very desaturated compared to, say, Cadmium Red Light; but because it was so expensive, people were reconditioned to love and admire that color.

In today's culture, a few of the meanings of white is "purity", "health" and "cleanliness," and it's associated with technology overall. Therefore, one of the reason white sells is that a person wants to be associated with those abstract qualities. Black usually means "timelessness" and "sophistication."

I'm sure you've heard an expression in English that says "(insert product here) is the new black," right? :)

forestofbrushes
01-08-2014, 12:41 PM
Ecobrush,
I find that perhaps a more crucial point is lightfastness.
And also why not having a go making your own colours?
If you grind your own stuff you are really sure of what ingredients are in your soup!

Get an apron and go to the kitchen. Fear not!